Law and the Future of War

UQ Law and the Future of War

Through conversation with experts in technology, law and military affairs, this series explores how new military technology and international law interact. Produced by Dr Lauren Sanders at The University of Queensland School of Law and edited by Rosie Cavdarski. read less
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Season 10

Future of War series: Sir Lawrence Freedman - The History of the Future of War (Ukraine Update)
Sep 20 2023
Future of War series: Sir Lawrence Freedman - The History of the Future of War (Ukraine Update)
We start our futures mini-series by speaking with an eminent military historian on the future of warfare. In this episode we are delighted to be joined by Sir Lawrence Freedman. Recorded in September 2023 he joins us to talk about the future of warfare, having regard to his approach to predicting future war, as outlined in The Future of War: A History; and the update to this commentary, taking into account the lessons to be learned from the ongoing conflict in the Ukraine.: Modern Warfare: Lessons from Ukraine.Professor Sir Lawrence Freedman is Emeritus Professor of War Studies, King's College London. Elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1995 and awarded the CBE in 1996, he was appointed Official Historian of the Falklands Campaign in 1997. In 2003, he was awarded the KCMG. In June 2009, he was appointed to serve as a member of the official inquiry into Britain and the 2003 Iraq War. He has written widely on international history, strategic theory and nuclear weapons issues, as well as commenting on current security issues. Among his books are Strategy: A History (2013, OUP) and Command: The Politics of Military Operations from Korea to Ukraine (2023, Penguin).You can read more of Freedman's commentary on his substack, Comment is Freed.Additional resources:Lawrence Freedman: Modern Warfare, Lessons from Ukraine (2023, A Lowy Institute Paper/Penguin) David Patreus and Andrew Roberts: Conflict: The Evolution of Warfare from 1945 to Ukraine (2023, Harper Collins)Mick Ryan: War Transformed (2022, Naval Institute Press).Mick Ryan's substack: Futura DoctrinaPhillip O'Brien's substack: Phillip's Newsletter
Future of War series: David Kilcullen and Ian Langford: the Future of Australia's Defence Strategy and the Indo-Pacific
Nov 29 2023
Future of War series: David Kilcullen and Ian Langford: the Future of Australia's Defence Strategy and the Indo-Pacific
Recorded in early September 2023,  this episode continues our futures mini-series, where we speak with Dr Ian Langford and Professor David Killcullen about the future of war in the Indo-Pacific region. In this episode we will be getting a download on what the change in geopolitics in the Indo-Pacific means for Australia, and how that might impact choices relating to technology, acquisitions and their subsequent use and regulation; as well as discussing what the future of proxy warfare and modern counterinsurgency might look like.Dr Ian Langford, DSC and Bars, is a member of a member of UNSW’s Future Operations Research Group and is a strategic adviser with UBH Group, a leading Sovereign Information Domain (SID) company. Dr Langford is a regular contributor to the Australian Army Research Centre, and in addition to being a Distinguished Graduate of the United States Marine Corps Command and Staff College and the School of Advanced Warfighting, he has recently retired from the Australian Army as a Brigadier where he filled multiple senior roles including – relevant to our discussion today – as the Army’s Director General of Future Land Warfare and the Head of Land Capability.Dr David Kilcullen is a former soldier and diplomat, and a scholar of guerrilla warfare, terrorism, urbanisation and the future of conflict, who served 25 years for the Australian and United States governments. During the Iraq War, he served in Baghdad as a member of the Joint Strategic Assessment Team, then as Senior Counterinsurgency Advisor, Multi-National Force Iraq in 2007, before becoming Special Advisor for Counterinsurgency to U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice on counterinsurgency; and in addition to holding senior academic roles across a number of institutions, he has written six books on counterinsurgency.Additional resources:-  Australian Defence Strategic Review- USMC Stand-In Force Concept- UK Future Commando Force Concept
Future of War: Artur Gruszczak - The Routledge Handbook on the Future of War
Dec 21 2023
Future of War: Artur Gruszczak - The Routledge Handbook on the Future of War
In this third episode in our futures mini-series, we continue our scoping of the utility of seeking to predict the future of war; before deep diving into emerging and disruptive technologies. Recorded in late September 2023, we are speaking with Artur Gruszczak about the Future of War, and his recently edited Handbook on the same topic, released by Routledge this September.Artur Gruszczak holds a PhD in Political Science from Jagiellonian University in Krakow. Currently he holds an appointment there as an Associate Professor of Political Science, Chair of National Security at the Faculty of International and Political Studies.  Since 2014 he has been Faculty Member of the European Academy Online run by the Centre international de formation européenne in Nice. His academic interests and research areas include: security studies, EU area of freedom, security and justice, intelligence cooperation in the European Union, and the evolution of modern warfare.Additional resources: Handbook of the Future of Warfare, Edited By Artur Gruszczak, Sebastian Kaempf, Routledge, 2023The Weaponisation of Everything, Mark Galeotti, Yale University Press, 2023New and Old Wars, Mary Kaldor, Stanford University Press, 2012Pearl Harbour: Warning and Decision, Roberta Wohlstetter, Stanford University Press, 1962Theorising Future Conflict, Mark Lacy, Routledge 2024.War Transformed, Mick Ryan 2022. The Future of War: A History, Lawrence Freedman 2018.Warrior Geeks, Christopher Coker, 2013.
Future of War series: Algorithmic Futures with Zena Assaad and Elizabeth Williams
Dec 21 2023
Future of War series: Algorithmic Futures with Zena Assaad and Elizabeth Williams
As part of our ‘futures’ mini-series, in this episode we are looking specifically at Algorithmic Futures, with hosts of the podcast of the same name: Dr Zena Assaad and Dr Elizabeth Williams, both from ANU. Today we are going to specifically focus on the breadth of the design and uncertainty problem for capabilities augmented by algorithms.  Elizabeth T. Williams is an Associate Professor in the School of Engineering at the Australian National University (ANU).  She has a PhD in experimental nuclear structure from Yale University. Since joining the ANU in 2012, Liz has held an ARC DECRA Fellowship, mucked about with accelerators, code, and superheavy elements, and explored complexity in real-world technological systems. She also led the creation of the hands-on half of the Masters of Applied Cybernetics, convened the School of Cybernetics 2021 PhD cohort program, and will soon convene the newly created Nuclear Systems major and minor for the School of Engineering’s Bachelor of Engineering programs.Zena Assaad is a senior research fellow within the School of Engineering at the Australian National University (ANU). Zena studied a Bachelor of Aerospace Engineering and completed a PhD exploring decision-making under uncertainty to support strategic air traffic flow management. Zena currently holds a fellowship position under the ethics uplift program with trusted autonomous systems, exploring human-machine teaming; and is also a fellow with the Australian Army Research Centre researching autonomy in swarms and human-machine teams.Additional Resources:Algorithmic Futures - podcast by Zena Assaad and Liz WilliamsKlara and the Sun - K Ishaguro, 2021The Ironies of Automation - L Bainbridge, Automatica, Vol. 19, No. 6. pp. 775 779, 1983

Season 9

Contemporary International Criminal Law Issues - Contributions in Pursuit of Accountability for Africa and the World: Takeh Sendze
Sep 13 2023
Contemporary International Criminal Law Issues - Contributions in Pursuit of Accountability for Africa and the World: Takeh Sendze
We start this international criminal law mini-series by speaking with Mr Takeh Sendze, who is the editor of a recently published book, Contemporary International Criminal Law Issues - Contributions in Pursuit of Accountability for Africa and the World, which deals with a range of issues impacting contemporary ICL practice in Africa and around the world.  Takeh B.K. Sendze is a Cameroonian lawyer who received an LL.B. Honours degree from the University of Buea, Cameroon, in 1999 and an LL.M. in International Law from the University of Hull, UK, in 2002. He is an advocate of the New York State (USA) and Cameroon Bar Associations. He is currently a Legal Officer with the Office of the Prosecutor at the United Nations International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals, with almost two decades worth of professional experience in the fields of International Law, International Humanitarian Law, International Criminal Law/prosecution and International Human Rights. He is an experienced public speaker, trainer, mentor, guest lecturer and community leader.Additional Resources Takeh's most recent publication, Contemporary International Criminal Law Issues: Contributions in Pursuit of Accountability for Africa and the World, edited alongside Adesola Adeboyejo,  Howard Morrison and Sophia UgwuThe International Law Series, edited by William A. SchabasContemporary Issues Facing the International Criminal Court,  Richard H. SteinbergInternational Criminal Investigations: Law and Practice, Adejoké Babington-Ashaye, Aimée Comrie, Akingbolahan Adeniran
Contemporary ICL Issues - Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: What Legacy for the New ICC Prosecutor? - Natacha Bracq
Sep 27 2023
Contemporary ICL Issues - Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: What Legacy for the New ICC Prosecutor? - Natacha Bracq
We continue this international criminal law mini-series by speaking with Natacha Bracq, who wrote a chapter on gender and sexual-based violence in Contemporary International Criminal Law Issues - Contributions in Pursuit of  Accountability for Africa and the World, which deals with a range of issues impacting contemporary ICL practice in Africa and around the world.  Her chapter, Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: What Legacy for the New ICC Prosecutor?  focuses on the International Criminal Court specifically,  highlighting that the court still struggles to effectively address such crimes and continues to repeat the errors of the past.Natacha works as a Legal Advisor with Dignity, the Danish Institute against Torture, and is also the founder of the first blog entirely dedicated to ICL in the French language (www.blogdip.org). Previously, amongst other roles, she worked as a lawyer at the Paris Bar and as the  Senior Officer for Training and Capacity Building at the International Nuremberg Principles Academy. She has worked with Wayne Jordash QC before various international tribunals including the ICJ, ICTY, and ICC.  Additional Resources: Prosecuting Sexual and Gender-Based Crimes in the International Criminal Court,  Rosemary Grey, 2019 Prosecuting Conflict-Related Sexual Violence at the ICTY, edited by Baron Serge Brammertz and Michelle Jarvis, 2016 International Protocol on the Documentation and Investigation of Sexual Violence in Conflict, June 2014, from the United Kingdom's Foreign and Commonwealth OfficeThe Hague Principles on Sexual ViolenceThe Murad Code
Contemporary International Criminal Law Issues - Guilty pleas and the ICC: Charles Adeogun-Phillips
Oct 4 2023
Contemporary International Criminal Law Issues - Guilty pleas and the ICC: Charles Adeogun-Phillips
In this interview, we are speaking with Dr Charles Adeogun-Phillips about the history of guilty pleas in international criminal law, as an author of a chapter on the same topic, as part of the edited works, Contemporary International Criminal Law Issues - Contributions in Pursuit of Accountability for Africa and the World. The challenges associated with the running of international criminal trials are extensive, and establishing a process for plea bargaining, to satisfactorily address some of the legal challenges associated with atrocity crimes, is an even more delicate one.  Today we are talking with Dr Adeogun-Phillips about how this process has evolved over the course of the ad hoc tribunals, and what plea bargaining means in terms of accountability for international criminal offences. Dr Charles A. Adeogun-Phillips is an accomplished international lawyer and former lead international prosecutor. He founded the cross-border law firm of Charles Anthony LLP, following a distinguished legal career at the UN, wherein he successfully led teams of international prosecutors in 12 precedent-setting genocide trials before the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, making him arguably one of the most experienced and successful genocide prosecutors in history. In 2021, he was called to the Bar of England and Wales as a transferring Solicitor, by the Honourable Society of Lincoln’s Inn, and practises as a Barrister from the prestigious Guernica 37 (International Justice) Chambers in London and The Hague. In 2022, he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Laws (honoris causa) by his alma mater, Warwick University, in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the development of international criminal law. He contributed to the book International Criminal Investigations, Law, and Practice—“The Challenges of International Investigations and Prosecutions: Perspectives of a Prosecutor” published by Eleven International, The Hague in 2018. He is the focal point for Nigeria at the ICC Bar Association.
Contemporary International Criminal Law Issues - Guilty pleas and the ICC: Charles Adeogun-Phillips Part 2
Oct 18 2023
Contemporary International Criminal Law Issues - Guilty pleas and the ICC: Charles Adeogun-Phillips Part 2
In this episode, we conclude our interview with Dr Charles Adeogun-Phillips, discussing guilty pleas and their development in international criminal law.Dr Charles A. Adeogun-Phillips is an accomplished international lawyer and former lead international prosecutor. He founded the cross-border law firm of Charles Anthony LLP, following a distinguished legal career at the UN, wherein he successfully led teams of international prosecutors in 12 precedent-setting genocide trials before the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, making him arguably one of the most experienced and successful genocide prosecutors in history. In 2021, he was called to the Bar of England and Wales as a transferring Solicitor, by the Honourable Society of Lincoln’s Inn, and practises as a Barrister from the prestigious Guernica 37 (International Justice) Chambers in London and The Hague. In 2022, he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Laws (honoris causa) by his alma mater, Warwick University, in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the development of international criminal law. He contributed to the book International Criminal Investigations, Law, and Practice—“The Challenges of International Investigations and Prosecutions: Perspectives of a Prosecutor” published by Eleven International, The Hague in 2018. He is the focal point for Nigeria at the ICC Bar Association.Additional Resources Nancy CombsKosovo Specialist Chambers Special Panels for Serious Crimes (East Timor).

Season 8

BarbieHeimer Special Series - Barbie and The Nine Dash Line: Don Rothwell
Aug 9 2023
BarbieHeimer Special Series - Barbie and The Nine Dash Line: Don Rothwell
In this, the first of our Special Series on the BarbieHeimer phenomenon, we speak with international law of the sea expert, Professor Don Rothwell to find out what all the controversy was about in relation to the banning of the Barbie movie in Vietnam; the 9-Dash line; and the importance of maps in international law.  Professor Donald R Rothwell is one of Australia’s leading experts in International Law with specific focus on the law of the sea; law of the polar regions; use of force and implementation of international law within Australia. He is the author of 28 books and over 200 book chapters and articles including, with Tim Stephens, The International Law of the Sea 3rd ed, (IN PRESS). His most recent work is Islands and International Law (Hart: 2022).Major career works include The Polar Regions and the Development of International Law (CUP, 1996), and International Law: Cases and Materials with Australian Perspectives 3rd (CUP: 2018).Rothwell is also Editor-in-Chief of the Brill Research Perspectives in Law of the Sea. From 2012-2018 he was Rapporteur of the International Law Association (ILA) Committee on ‘Baselines under the International Law of the Sea’.  Rothwell was previously Challis Professor of International Law and Director of the Sydney Centre for International and Global Law, University of Sydney (2004-2006), where he had taught since 1988. He has acted as a consultant or been a member of expert groups for UNEP, UNDP, IUCN, the Australian Government, and acted as advisor to the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW).In 2012 Rothwell was appointed an inaugural ANU Public Policy Fellow, and in 2015 elected as Fellow to the Australian Academy of Law. He is a regular media commentator on international law issues and has written over 100 opinion comments, including for all of the major daily newspapers in Australia and ABC Online ‘The Drum. Additional Resources:Don Rothwell, What is the ‘nine-dash line’ and what does it have to do with the Barbie movie?, The Conversation, 4 July 2023 (images of the Barbie 8-Dash Line and the real 9-Dash Line are embedded in this story).Erik Franckx and Marco Benatar, ‘Dots and Lines in the South China Sea: Insights from the Law of Map Evidence’ (2012) 2 Asian Journal of International Law 89-118.Z. Gao and B. Jia, ‘The Nine-Dash Line in the South China Sea: History, Status, and Implications’ (2013) 107 (1) American Journal of International Law 98-123.Communications received with regard to the joint submission made by Malaysia and Viet Nam to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf – China (7 May 2009).
BarbieHeimer Special Series - Oppenheimer missed an opportunity: Gareth Evans
Aug 9 2023
BarbieHeimer Special Series - Oppenheimer missed an opportunity: Gareth Evans
In the second in our 'BarbieHeimer' series, we turn to the Oppenheimer movie and speak with world-renowned nuclear disarmament advocate and expert, Gareth Evans, about the opportunity the movie missed in re-energising efforts to the nuclear disarmament cause. We speak with him about the need for Australia to return to its former position of influence in arms control, to focus on a policy of 4D's: - Doctrine of no first use; - De-alerting early launch status of nuclear weapons; - reducing Deployments of nuclear weapons; and - Decreasing the number of nuclear weapons. Professor the Hon Gareth Evans AC KC FASSA FAIIA is Distinguished Honorary Professor at the Australian National University, where he was Chancellor from 2010-19. He was a Cabinet Minister in the Hawke and Keating Labor Governments from 1983-96, in the posts of Attorney General, Minister for Resources and Energy, Minister for Transport and Communications and - from 1988-96 - Foreign Minister. During his 21 years in Australian politics he was Leader of the Government in the Senate (1993-96) and Deputy Leader of the Opposition in the House of Representatives (1996-98). From 2000 to 2009 he was President and CEO of the Brussels-based International Crisis Group, the independent global conflict prevention and resolution organisation. He initiated the Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons, co-chaired the Australia-Japan International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament, was founding convenor of the Asia Pacific Leadership Network on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament (APLN), and co-authored Nuclear Weapons: The State of Play (ANU, 2013 and 2015).Additional resources:Gareth Evans, 'Nuclear weapons:“Oppenheimer” won’t make a difference, but Australia can', The Interpreter, 27 Jul 2023.Other publications by Gareth Evans, available here (see in particular:  Lowering the Nuclear Temperature: Australia's role; Nuclear Weapons: The State of Play;  Revisiting the case for No First Use of nuclear weapons; & Nuclear Disarmament: the global challenge.Australia-Japan ICNND Report Eliminating Nuclear Threats , Report of the International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament, Co-Chair Yoriko Kawaguchi, 2009.George P. Shultz, William J. Perry,  Henry A. Kissinger and Sam Nunn, 'A World Free of Nuclear Weapons', The Wall Street Journal, 4 Jan 2007.John Hersey, Hiroshima, Snowball Publishing, 1946.Ward Wilson Five Myths About Nuclear Weapons, Mariner Books, 2014.Ramesh Thakur, 'Four Myths about Nuclear Weapons,'  Pearls and Irritations - John Menadue's Public Policy Journal, 4 June 2023.
BarbieHeimer Special Series - Barbie as a Souvenir of International Law: Emily Crawford and Jacqueline Mowbray
Aug 9 2023
BarbieHeimer Special Series - Barbie as a Souvenir of International Law: Emily Crawford and Jacqueline Mowbray
In this 'BarbieHeimer' special episode, we return to the plastic doll, to talk about materialism, symbolism and the souvenirs in international law.  Emily Crawford and Jacqueline Mowbray walk us through their Souvenirs in International Law exhibit and project; and where Barbie features in their exhibit, as well as introducing us to Doudou Louis, the Louis Vuitton UNICEF Bear. To submit your own international law souvenir:  @atthevanishingpoint on Instagram.Professor Emily Crawford is at the University of Sydney Law School, where she teaches and researches in international law, international humanitarian law and international criminal law. She has published widely in the field of international humanitarian law, including three monographs (The Treatment of Combatants and Insurgents under the Law of Armed Conflict (OUP 2010), Identifying the Enemy: Civilian Participation in Hostilities (OUP 2015) and Non-Binding Norms in International Humanitarian Law: Efficacy, Legitimacy and Legality (OUP 2021)) and a textbook (International Humanitarian Law (with Alison Pert, 2nd edition, CUP 2020)). She is an associate of the Sydney Centre for International Law at the University of Sydney, and a co-editor of the Journal of International Humanitarian Studies.Associate Professor Jacqueline Mowbray also at the  University of Sydney Law School, is the external legal adviser to Australia's Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights. Her work uses critical theory to explore the operation of international law, and focuses on international law and language policy, and economic, social and cultural rights. Her monograph Linguistic Justice: International Law and Language Policy was published by OUP in 2012. Her second monograph, The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Commentary, Cases, and Materials (co-authored with Saul and Kinley) was winner of the 2015 American Society of International Law Certificate of Merit. Additional Resources:Jessie Hohmann and Daniel Joyce (eds), International Law's Objects, OUP, 2018. Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste, HUP, 1987. Marcel Mauss, The Gift, Routledge, 1950.For Barbie about town, see @intlawbarbie on Twitter/X!
BarbieHeimer - what the meme (and pop culture) teaches us about nuclear politics: Emily Faux
Aug 9 2023
BarbieHeimer - what the meme (and pop culture) teaches us about nuclear politics: Emily Faux
Today we continue our ‘BarbieHeimer’  (or Barbenheimer) series, and are talking today about the meme itself. Is it appropriate to mash these two films together? Is this frivolity making light of the serious impacts of nuclear weapons and the need for a refocus on non-proliferation and disarmament efforts? We speak with a scholar of Visual Politics and Visual Research Methods – Emily Faux - whose doctoral studies focus on what pop culture can tell us about nuclear weapons.Emily is a PhD candidate at Newcastle University, UK. Her thesis investigates nuclear weapons and war through popular film, television, and video game. She is interested in the contemporary story and popular imagination of nuclear weapons and war, as it exists in the current geopolitical climate. Emily teaches at the University of Leeds and is a member of the FemNukes network, a contributor for HighlyNRiched and has completed both the EU's Young Women in Non-Proliferation and Disarmament mentorship scheme and the University of California's Public Policy and Nuclear Threats course.Edited by Rosie Cavdarski.Additional resources:Emily Faux: What Barbie can teach us about nuclear weapons, The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, 3 August 2023Emily Faux:  The Untold Stories Behind “Oppenheimer” , InkStick, 18 Jul 2023Nukespeak: the Media and the Bomb, edited by Crispin Aubrey John Mecklin,  An extended interview with Christopher Nolan, director of Oppenheimer,  17 July 2023, Bulletin of the Atomic ScientistsJenny Johnston, Filmmaker on a Mission, 16 August 2020, N Square.

Season 7

AI Literacy for Defence Industry - Zygmunt Szpak
May 10 2023
AI Literacy for Defence Industry - Zygmunt Szpak
The discussion about AI regulation and law has been hampered by a lack of understanding about what AI actually is and what it can do. To date, there is no agreed definition of what constitutes AI; not any likely international consensus, with many states and NGOs adopting their own definitions.  This problem is then compounded when it comes to defining (and confining) what constitutes lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS).In this episode Dr Lauren Sanders interviews Dr Zygmunt Szpak, a computer scientist and executive director of Insight Via Artificial Intelligence (IVAI), to discuss some of these difficult questions. IVAI does research, development and deployment of AI, and also educates Defence industry on what AI is and how it can be used. The company is a member of the Defence AI Research Network and is currently working on Science, Technology and Research (STaR) Shots, which are challenging, inspirational and aspirational S&T missions that will align strategic research to force structure priorities. Prior to co-founding IVAI, Zygmunt spent over a decade working as a Senior Research Associate at the University of Adelaide, in the Australian Centre for Visual Technologies which then became the Australian Institute for Machine Learning. Zygmunt remains an adjunct senior lecturer at the Institute.  Additional Resources The Prediction Machines websiteThe European Commission's report, Shaping Europe's digital future, which includes 'A Definition of Artificial Intelligence: main capabilities and scientific disciplines' The movie, 'Hidden Figures' The  'AI and Deep Learning' collection, created by the Two Minute Papers Youtube Channel.
Legal Review of AWS: Decision support systems and technical feasibility of review- Taylor Woodcock and Klaudia Klonowska
Jun 7 2023
Legal Review of AWS: Decision support systems and technical feasibility of review- Taylor Woodcock and Klaudia Klonowska
As part of our new, limited series on the Legal Review of AWS, we speak with two researchers from the Asser Institute on what the legal review obligation means for decision support systems, and what technical challenges exist in approaching the review obligation during the design and development phases in the creation of AWS.Taylor Kate Woodcock is a PhD researcher in public international law at the Asser Institute/University of Amsterdam. Her research, conducted in the context of the DILEMA project on Designing International Law and Ethics into Military Artificial Intelligence, examines the implications of the development and use of military applications of artificial intelligence (AI) for current international legal frameworks governing armed conflict. In particular, this research project explores the relationship between these legal frameworks and the concept of human agency, with a view to considering whether international law can be accounted for in the design of military AI and the military infrastructures in which these algorithms are embedded.Klaudia Klonowska is a PhD Candidate in International Law at the Asser Institute and the University of Amsterdam. She studies the interactions of humans and AI-enabled decision-support systems in the military decision-making process and the consequences thereof to the compliance of military practices with international humanitarian and human rights law. She is a member of the research project Designing International Law and Ethics into Military Artificial Intelligence (DILEMA). Additional resources:Asser's DILEMA project - publications on Article 36 and AWS including how to translate legal obligations to code, philosophy of use of AWS, state responsibility and AWS , criminal responsibility and AWS.Klaudia Klonowska,  Article 36: Review of AI Decision-Support Systems and Other Emerging Technologies of Warfare, Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (YIHL), Volume 23 (2020), The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press (2021)DILEMA Statement on the Global Governance of Artificial Intelligence in the Military
What does IHL Permit, Prohibit and Require? - Netta Goussac and Laura Bruun
Jun 20 2023
What does IHL Permit, Prohibit and Require? - Netta Goussac and Laura Bruun
In this episode, as part of our series on AWS, legal review & IHL, we speak with Netta Goussac & Laura Bruun about their recently released SIPRI report on IHL & AWS, asking questions about what IHL permits, prohibits & requires in the design, development & use of AWS. Netta Goussac is a Special Counsel with Lexbridge (a legal practice & consultancy specialising in public international law). She has worked as an international lawyer for over a decade, including for the ICRC & the Australian Government’s Office of International Law. Netta has expertise in legal frameworks related to the development, acquisition & transfer of weapons. Netta has provided legal & policy advice related to new technologies of warfare, including AWS, military applications of AI & cyber & space security, including as a researcher with the SIPRI.Laura Bruun is a Researcher in the Governance of AI Programme at SIPRI. Her focus is on how emerging military technologies, notably AWS & military AI, affect compliance with—& interpretation of—IHL. Laura has a background in Middle Eastern Studies (University of Copenhagen) and International Security & Law (University of Southern Denmark). Laura worked at, among others, Airwars in London, where she monitored & assessed civilian casualty reports from US & Russian airstrikes in Syria & Iraq. Additional Resources: Netta & Laura's report, Compliance with International Humanitarian Law in the Development and Use of Autonomous Weapon Systems: What does IHL Permit, Prohibit and Require?  published by SIPRIThe SIPRI publication series on AWS, including the development of autonomy, human control & accountability & Article 36 ReviewsThe Asser Institute's podcast, Lethal Autonomous Weapons: 10 things we want to knowUNIDIR publications, including Gender Bias and the 'Black Box'.ICRC's Position on Autonomous Weapons Systems here; see also their factsheet & videoDustin Lewis, A Key Set of IHL Questions concerning AI-supported Decision-making, in 51 CollegiumJaan Kross, Professor Martens' Departure, 1995
AWS, the Alignment problem and regulation - Brendan Walker-Munro and Sam Hartridge
Aug 1 2023
AWS, the Alignment problem and regulation - Brendan Walker-Munro and Sam Hartridge
In this interview, we are continuing our series on legal review of AWS, and speaking with two of the Law and Future of war research team, about an issue that impacts the design approaches to AWS: the alignment problem. In May 2023, there were reports of an AWS being tested, that turned upon its operator, and eventually cut its communications links so it could go after its originally planned mission... this prompted discussion about the alignment problem with AWS, impacting future TEVV strategies and regulatory approaches to this technology.The conference referred to in the episode can be found in the notes to the attached link,  with relevant excerpts extracted below: - Highlights from the RAeS Future Combat Air & Space Capabilities Summit (aerosociety.com):'Could an AI-enabled UCAV turn on its creators to accomplish its mission? (USAF)[UPDATE 2/6/23 - in communication with AEROSPACE - Col Hamilton admits he "mis-spoke" in his presentation at the Royal Aeronautical Society FCAS Summit and the 'rogue AI drone simulation' was a hypothetical "thought experiment" from outside the military, based on plausible scenarios and likely outcomes rather than an actual USAF real-world simulation saying: "We've never run that experiment, nor would we need to in order to realise that this is a plausible outcome". ] Col Tucker ‘Cinco’ Hamilton, the Chief of AI Test and Operations, USAF, ... cautioned against relying too much on AI noting how easy it is to trick and deceive.... Said Hamilton: “We were training it in simulation to identify and target a SAM threat. And then the operator would say yes, kill that threat. The system started realising that while they did identify the threat at times the human operator would tell it not to kill that threat, but it got its points by killing that threat. So what did it do? It killed the operator. It killed the operator because that person was keeping it from accomplishing its objective.”Dr Brendan Walker-Munro is a Senior Research Fellow with the University of Queensland's Law and the Future of War research group. Brendan's research focus is on criminal and civil aspects of national security law, and the role played by intelligence agencies, law enforcement and the military in investigating and responding to critical incidents. He is also interested in the national security impacts of law on topics such as privacy, identity crime and digital security.Dr Sam Hartridge is a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Queensland. His research is currently examining the interplay between technical questions of AI safety, AI risk management frameworks and standards, and foundational international and domestic legal doctrine.  Additional Resources:Autonomy in weapons systems: playing catch up with technology - Humanitarian Law & Policy Blog (icrc.org)Striking Blind | The Forge (defence.gov.au)Concrete Problems in AI Safety (arxiv.org)The Superintelligent Will: Motivation and Instrumental Rationality in Advanced Artificial Agents (researchgate.net)The Surprising Creativity of Digital Evolution: A Collection of Anecdotes from the Evolutionary Computation and Artificial Life Research Communities (arxiv.org)

Season 6

Theaters of War - Sebastian Kaempf
Dec 14 2022
Theaters of War - Sebastian Kaempf
This is the first episode in our special series on entertainment and the law of war.In this episode, Dr Sebastian Kaempf, a Senior Lecturer in Peace and Conflict Studies, joins Dr Lauren Sanders to discuss. his documentary: and the documents he's uncovered from the US CIA and military Entertainment Liaison Offices as part of this project.   Dr Sebastian Kaempf is a Senior Lecturer in Peace and Conflict Studies at the School of Political Science and International Studies, at the University of Queensland. Sebastian received his PhD at Aberystwyth University in the UK, at the Department of International Politics. He also holds a BSc and MSc (Econ) in International Relations from the London School of Economics and Political Science. Among his awards is the ISA Deborah Gerner Award for Teaching Innovation in 2020. His work at UQ includes producing and convening 'MediaWarX', one of UQ's Massive Open Online Courses. Sebastian also hosts a podcast with his colleague Associate Professor Al Stark, where they interview some of the best teachers about their practical advice on engaging university students in the classroom. You can listen to 'Higher Ed Heroes' here on Buzzsprout.  Additional Resources:‘Theaters of War: How the Pentagon and CIA took Hollywood’ is a feature-length film documentary, produced and directed by Roger Stahl, Tom Secker, Matthew Alford and Sebastian Kaempf, funded and released through the Media Education Foundation in May 2022.  Tom Secker and Matthew Alford, ‘New Evidence for the Surprisingly Significant Propaganda Role of the Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense in the Screen Entertainment Industry’ (2019) 45(3) Critical Sociology 347. Tom Secker and Matthew Alford, ‘Why are the Pentagon and the CIA in Hollywood?’ (2017) 76(2) The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 381. James Der Derian, Virtuous War: Mapping the Military-industrial-media-entertainment Network (Routledge, 2nd ed, 2009)