Stuff You Missed in History Class

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Join Holly and Tracy as they bring you the greatest and strangest Stuff You Missed In History Class in this podcast by iHeartRadio. read less

Our Editor's Take

Stuff You Missed in History Class is a lighthearted look at some major moments in history. This podcast covers unusual or untold stories, from the exciting to the unbelievable. Listeners learn all about some forgotten names of history and the details behind skipped-over significant events. This show sheds light on everything from family secrets to vast historical conspiracies. It also looks into significant figures who have been overlooked by textbooks.

There are stories about rivers catching fire, Vincent Van Gogh, and epic prison escapes. Each story is an exciting historical moment that affected the world at the time. This podcast is a must-listen for those who love historical facts and real stories with a dramatic flair.

Informative yet fun, this is a history podcast that aims to entertain. All the stories are factual and focus on the most dramatic parts of history. Listeners can start with episode one or pick and choose the topics that stand out to them. There's never a dull moment when listening to Stuff You Missed in History Class. It strikes a balance between informative and fun. It is also an ideal platform for learning all that history has to offer. From unbelievable bravery to chance circumstances, the stories in this podcast will amaze.

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Society & CultureSociety & Culture

Episodes

Francisco de Miranda, Part 1
Today
Francisco de Miranda, Part 1
Francisco de Miranda participated in the struggle for independence in the United States, the French revolution and the emancipation of Latin America. Part one covers his early life and his connection to the American Revolution. Research: "Francisco de Miranda." Historic World Leaders, edited by Anne Commire, Gale, 1994. Gale In Context: U.S. History, link.gale.com/apps/doc/K1616000176/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=7ecb650a. Accessed 5 June 2024."Lessons from a liberal swashbuckler; Bello." The Economist, vol. 420, no. 8999, 23 July 2016, p. 28(US). Gale OneFile: Business, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A458950088/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=9bc28a69. Accessed 5 June 2024.“Unveiling Memories: Spain and the Hispanic Contribution to U.S. Independence.” https://www.unveilingmemories.com/Alejandro E. Gómez, “The ‘Pardo Question’”, Nuevo Mundo Mundos Nuevos [En ligne], Matériaux de séminaires, mis en ligne le 08 juin 2008, consulté le 11 juin 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/34503Bolufer, Mónica. “A Latin American Casanova? Sex, Gender, Enlightenment and Revolution in the Life and Writings of Francisco de Miranda.” Gender & History, Vol.34 No.1 March 2022, pp. 22–41.Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Francisco de Miranda". Encyclopedia Britannica, 27 Mar. 2024, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Francisco-de-Miranda. Accessed 5 June 2024.Cook, Sue. “Francisco de Miranda - the Venezuelan revolutionary with a Yorkshire wife.” BBC Radio 4. https://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/making_history/makhist10_prog6a.shtmlMiller, Gary. "Miranda, Francisco de (1750–1816)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, edited by Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer, 2nd ed., vol. 4, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008, pp. 620-622. Gale In Context: World History, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3078903669/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=cbbd0b6b. Accessed 5 June 2024.Navas, Claudia Isabel. “Francisco de Miranda and the United States.” Library of Congress Hispanic Division. 10/11/2017. https://loc.gov/item/2021690630Racine, Karen. “Francisco de Miranda: A Transatlantic Life in the Age of Revolution.” Scholarly Resources Inc. 2003.Robertson, William Spence. “Francisco de Miranda and the revolutionizing of Spanish America.” Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the year 1907. Government Printing Office. 1908.Sutton, Mallory. “Treaty of Aranjuez (1779).” George Washington’s Mount Vernon. https://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/treaty-of-aranjuez-1779/Teaching History. “Spain in the American Revolution.” https://teachinghistory.org/history-content/ask-a-historian/22894See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Solon of Athens
5d ago
Solon of Athens
Solon is one of the seven sages of Athens, and he's credited with laying the groundwork for Athenian democracy. But most of what we know about him comes biographies written centuries after he lived.  Research: Aristotle, tr. Sir Frederic G. Kenyon. “The Athenian Constitution.” https://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/athenian_const.1.1.htmlBritannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Draco". Encyclopedia Britannica, 28 Feb. 2024, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Draco-Greek-lawgiverCadoux, T. J. “The Athenian Archons from Kreon to Hypsichides.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. 68, 1948, pp. 70–123. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/626301Cartwright, Mark. “Solon.” World History Encyclopedia. March 10, 2016. https://www.worldhistory.org/solon/Forrest, W. G., and D. L. Stockton. “The Athenian Archons: A Note.” Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte, vol. 36, no. 2, 1987, pp. 235–40. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/4436007French, A. “Solon and the Megarian Question.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. 77, 1957, pp. 238–46. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/629363Gill, N.S. "Solon's Reforms and the Rise of Democracy in Athens." ThoughtCo, Aug. 30, 2020, thoughtco.com/solons-reforms-democracy-121062.Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim. “What’s in a Code? Solon’s Laws between Complexity, Compilation and Contingency.” Hermes, vol. 133, no. 3, 2005, pp. 280–93. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/4477659Leão, Delfim F. and P.J. Rhodes. “The Laws of Solon.” I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. London. 2015.Linforth, Ivan Mortimer. “Solon the Athenian.” University of California Press. 1919. Accessed online: https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=_NENAAAAIAAJ&rdid=book-_NENAAAAIAAJ&rdot=1Plutarch, and Aubrey Stewart, MA. “Plutarch’s Lives.” George Bell & Sons. London. 1894. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/14033/14033-h/14033-h.htm#LIFE_OF_SOLONPlutarch, and John Dryden. “Plutarch’s Lives.” Little, Brown & Co. Boston. 1895. Accessed online: https://archive.org/details/plutarchslivest02clougoog/page/n7/mode/1upStarr, Chester G.. "Peisistratus". Encyclopedia Britannica, 1 Apr. 2024, https://www.britannica.com/biography/PeisistratusSee omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Missouri Leviathan
1w ago
Missouri Leviathan
The Missouri Leviathan was an enormous skeleton made of fossilized bones that were excavated and assembled by Albert C. Koch. Was it a hoax, or just bad science?  Research:  Lotzof, Kerry. “Missouri Leviathan: the making of an American mastodon.” Natural History Museum (London). https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/the-making-of-an-american-mastodon.htmlWanko, Andrew. “Great River City: The Missouri Leviathan.” Missouri Historical Society. 12/12/2019. https://mohistory.org/blog/great-river-city-the-missouri-leviathanMissouri State Parks. “At Mastodon State Historic Site.” https://mostateparks.com/page/54983/historic-site-historyPhillips, Nicholas. “This odd creature from Missouri once gained international fame.” St. Louis Magazine. 5/8/2020. https://www.stlmag.com/culture/missouri-leviathan-albert-koch-mastodon-kimmswick/Ashworth, William. “Scientist of the Day: Albert C. Koch.” Linda Hall Library. 5/10/2022. https://www.lindahall.org/about/news/scientist-of-the-day/albert-c-koch/Mackenthun, Gesa. “Albert Koch.” Universitat Rostock. 3/4/2016. https://www.iaa.uni-rostock.de/forschung/laufende-forschungsprojekte/american-antiquities-prof-mackenthun/project/agents/albert-c-koch/Buckley, S.B. “On the Zeuglodon Remains of Alabama.” American Journal of Science and Arts, Band 52.Dana, James D. “On Dr. Koch's Evidence with Regard to the Cotemporaneity of Man and the Mastodon in Missouri.” American Journal of Science and the Arts, Vol. IX, May 1875.Hoy, P.R. “Dr. Koch’s Missorium.” The American Naturalist Volume 5, Issue 3. May, 1871. https://doi.org/10.1086/270728Krause, Stefan. “From Prehistory to Deep History: The Coloniality of Counting Time.” Universitat Rostock.Proceedings of the Geological Society of London. Vol. 3, Part 2. No. 87. 1842.Hensley, John R. “Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis.” Vol. 33, No. 1.McMillan, R. Bruce. “Objects of Curiosity: Albert Koch’s `1840 St. Louis Museum.” The Living Museum vol. 42, no. 02,03; 1980. Via Illinois Digital Archives.McMillan, R. Bruce. “More than a Fossil Hunter: The Life and Pursuits of Charles W. Beehler.” The Confluence. Spring/Summer 2013.Hazen, Robert M. "Phenomena, comment and notes." Smithsonian, vol. 22, no. 7, Oct. 1991, pp. 28+. Gale In Context: U.S. History, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A11373982/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=99bffd4a. Accessed 22 May 2024.Bruce Mcmillan, R. "ALBERT C. KOCH'S MISSOURIUM AND THE DEBATE OVER THE CONTEMPORANEITY OF HUMANS AND THE PLEISTOCENE MEGAFAUNA OF NORTH AMERICA." Earth Sciences History, vol. 41, no. 2, July 2022, pp. 410+. Gale In Context: Science, dx.doi.org/10.17704/1944-6187-41.2.410. Accessed 22 May 2024.Mcmillan, R. Bruce. "ALBERT KOCH'S HYDRARCHOS: A HOAX OR A BONA FIDE COLLECTION OF BONES." Earth Sciences History, vol. 42, no. 1, Jan. 2023, pp. 84+. Gale In Context: Science, dx.doi.org/10.17704/1944-6187-42.1.84. Accessed 22 May 2024.Rieppel, Lukas. “Albert Koch’s Hydrarchos Craze: Credibility, Identity, and Authenticity in Nineteenth-Century Natural History.” From: Science Museums in Transition: Cultures of Display in Nineteenth-Century Britain and America. 1 ed. University of Pittsburgh Press, 2017. muse.jhu.edu/book/52515Koch, Albert C. “Description of Missourium, or Missouri leviathan : together with its supposed habits and Indian traditions concerning the location from whence it was exhumed; also, comparisons of the whale, crocodile and missourium with the leviathan, as described in 41st chapter of the book of Job.” Louisville, Ky. : Prentice and Weissinger. 1841.“The Missourium.” The Farmers' Cabinet and American Herd-Book : Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, and Rural and Domestic Affairs 1841-12-15: Vol 6 Iss 5.Veit, Richard. "Mastodons, Mound Builders, and Montroville Wilson Dickeson–Pioneering American Archaeologist." Expedition Magazine 41, no. 3 (November, 1999): -. Accessed May 24, 2024. https://www.penn.museum/sites/expedition/mastodons-mound-builders-and-montroville-wilson-dickeson-pioneering-american-archaeologist/See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Part 2
Jun 12 2024
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Part 2
Once Dr. Ray Damadian had the idea to create a machine that used nuclear magnetic resonance to capture diagnostic data by scanning a human body, he still had to build it. And though he did, other scientists got credit for inventing the MRI.   Research: Bashir U, Rock P, Murphy A, et al. T2 relaxation. Reference article, Radiopaedia.org. https://doi.org/10.53347/rID-16494Bellis, Mary. "A Guide to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)." ThoughtCo, Apr. 5, 2023, thoughtco.com/magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-1992133Bloch, Felix. “The Principle of Nuclear Induction.” Nobel Lecture. Dec. 11, 1952. https://www.nobelprize.org/uploads/2018/06/bloch-lecture-1.pdfBloembergen, Nicolas. “Edward M. Purcell (1912-97).” Nature. April 17, 1997. https://www.nature.com/articles/386662a0.pdfBritannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Isidor Isaac Rabi". Encyclopedia Britannica, 3 Apr. 2024, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Isidor-Isaac-RabiBritannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Paul Lauterbur". Encyclopedia Britannica, 2 May. 2024, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Paul-LauterburBritannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "nuclear magnetic resonance". Encyclopedia Britannica, 25 Apr. 2024, https://www.britannica.com/science/nuclear-magnetic-resonanceDamadian, Raymond, and Jeff Kinley. “Gifted Mind: The Dr. Raymond Damadian Story.” Master Books. 2015.Damadian R. “Tumor detection by nuclear magnetic resonance.” Science. 1971 Mar 19;171(3976):1151-3. doi: 10.1126/science.171.3976.1151Deutsch, Claudia H. “Patent Fights Aplenty for MRI Pioneer.” New York Times. July 12, 1997. https://www.nytimes.com/1997/07/12/business/patent-fights-aplenty-for-mri-pioneer.html“Dr. Edward Purcell, 84, Dies; Shared Nobel Prize in Physics.” New York Times. March 10, 1997. https://www.nytimes.com/1997/03/10/us/dr-edward-purcell-84-dies-shared-nobel-prize-in-physics.htmlDrew Z, Jones J, Murphy A, et al. Longitudinal and transverse magnetization. Reference article, Radiopaedia.org (Accessed on 03 Jun 2024) https://doi.org/10.53347/rID-60738"Edward Mills Purcell." National Academy of Sciences. 2000. Biographical Memoirs: Volume 78. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9977:"Felix Bloch." National Academy of Sciences. 1994. Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4547LAUTERBUR, P. Image Formation by Induced Local Interactions: Examples Employing Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Nature242, 190–191 (1973). https://doi.org/10.1038/242190a0National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 1994. Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/4547.National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2000. Biographical Memoirs: Volume 78. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/9977.Hofstadter, Robert. “Felix Bloch.” National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 1994. Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/4547.Isidor Isaac Rabi – Biographical. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2024. Tue. 4 Jun 2024. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/1944/rabi/biographical/Jones J, Howden W, Rock P, et al. T1 relaxation time. Reference article, Radiopaedia.org (Accessed on 03 Jun 2024) https://doi.org/10.53347/rID-6315Luiten, A.L. (1999). Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Historical Introduction. In: Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-03800-0_1MacWilliams, B. Russian claims first in magnetic imaging. Nature426, 375 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/426375a“Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).” National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and BioEngineering. https://www.nibib.nih.gov/science-education/science-topics/magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri“The Man Who Did Not Win.” Sydney Morning Herald. October 17, 2003. https://www.smh.com.au/national/the-man-who-did-not-win-20031017-gdhlpn.htmlOdeblad E, Lindström G. Some preliminary observations on the proton magnetic resonance in biologic samples. Acta Radiol Suppl (Stockholm). 2008 Aug;434:57-61. doi: 10.1080/02841850802133337Paul C. Lauterbur – Biographical. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2024. Tue. 4 Jun 2024. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/2003/lauterbur/biographical/Plewes, Donald B., PhD, and Walter Kucharczyk, PhD. “Physics of MRI: A Primer.” MR Physics for Clinicians. April 12, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.23642Prasad, Amit. “The (Amorphous) Anatomy of an Invention: The Case of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).” Social Studies of Science, vol. 37, no. 4, 2007, pp. 533–60. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/25474534Purcell, E.M. et al. “Resonance Absorption by Nuclear Magnetic Moments in a Solid.” Physics Review. January 1, 1946. https://journals.aps.org/pr/pdf/10.1103/PhysRev.69.37“Raymond Damadian.” Lemelson-MIT. https://lemelson.mit.edu/award-winners/raymond-damadianSandomir, Richard. “Raymond Damadian, Creator of the First M.R.I. Scanner, Dies at 86.” New York Times. Aug. 17, 2022. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/08/17/science/raymond-damadian-dead.htmlSerai, Suraj, PhD, and Tony Dandino. “Why are MRI scans so loud?” Cincinnati Children’s Radiology Department Blog. October 13, 2016. https://radiologyblog.cincinnatichildrens.org/whats-with-all-the-noise/Sullivan, Walter. “Five Named as Winners of Lasker Medical Research Awards.” New York Times. Nov. 15, 1984. https://www.nytimes.com/1984/11/15/us/five-named-as-winners-of-lasker-medical-research-awards.htmlNational Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2000. Biographical Memoirs: Volume 78. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/9977.Wakefield, Julie. “The ‘Indomitable’ MRI.” Smithsonian. June 2000. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-indomitable-mri-29126670/See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Part 1
Jun 10 2024
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Part 1
Who invented the MRI? Well, that's actually tricky to say, and it is a topic that still opens debate. In this first part, we'll talk about the various developments in physics that led to the idea of an MRI machine even existing. Research: Bashir U, Rock P, Murphy A, et al. T2 relaxation. Reference article, Radiopaedia.org. https://doi.org/10.53347/rID-16494Bellis, Mary. "A Guide to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)." ThoughtCo, Apr. 5, 2023, thoughtco.com/magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-1992133Bloch, Felix. “The Principle of Nuclear Induction.” Nobel Lecture. Dec. 11, 1952. https://www.nobelprize.org/uploads/2018/06/bloch-lecture-1.pdfBloembergen, Nicolas. “Edward M. Purcell (1912-97).” Nature. April 17, 1997. https://www.nature.com/articles/386662a0.pdfBritannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Isidor Isaac Rabi". Encyclopedia Britannica, 3 Apr. 2024, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Isidor-Isaac-RabiBritannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Paul Lauterbur". Encyclopedia Britannica, 2 May. 2024, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Paul-LauterburBritannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "nuclear magnetic resonance". Encyclopedia Britannica, 25 Apr. 2024, https://www.britannica.com/science/nuclear-magnetic-resonanceDamadian, Raymond, and Jeff Kinley. “Gifted Mind: The Dr. Raymond Damadian Story.” Master Books. 2015.Damadian R. “Tumor detection by nuclear magnetic resonance.” Science. 1971 Mar 19;171(3976):1151-3. doi: 10.1126/science.171.3976.1151Deutsch, Claudia H. “Patent Fights Aplenty for MRI Pioneer.” New York Times. July 12, 1997. https://www.nytimes.com/1997/07/12/business/patent-fights-aplenty-for-mri-pioneer.html“Dr. Edward Purcell, 84, Dies; Shared Nobel Prize in Physics.” New York Times. March 10, 1997. https://www.nytimes.com/1997/03/10/us/dr-edward-purcell-84-dies-shared-nobel-prize-in-physics.htmlDrew Z, Jones J, Murphy A, et al. Longitudinal and transverse magnetization. Reference article, Radiopaedia.org (Accessed on 03 Jun 2024) https://doi.org/10.53347/rID-60738"Edward Mills Purcell." National Academy of Sciences. 2000. Biographical Memoirs: Volume 78. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9977:"Felix Bloch." National Academy of Sciences. 1994. Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4547LAUTERBUR, P. Image Formation by Induced Local Interactions: Examples Employing Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Nature242, 190–191 (1973). https://doi.org/10.1038/242190a0National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 1994. Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/4547.National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2000. Biographical Memoirs: Volume 78. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/9977.Hofstadter, Robert. “Felix Bloch.” National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 1994. Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/4547.Isidor Isaac Rabi – Biographical. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2024. Tue. 4 Jun 2024. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/1944/rabi/biographical/Jones J, Howden W, Rock P, et al. T1 relaxation time. Reference article, Radiopaedia.org (Accessed on 03 Jun 2024) https://doi.org/10.53347/rID-6315Luiten, A.L. (1999). Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Historical Introduction. In: Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-03800-0_1MacWilliams, B. Russian claims first in magnetic imaging. Nature426, 375 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/426375a“Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).” National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and BioEngineering. https://www.nibib.nih.gov/science-education/science-topics/magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri“The Man Who Did Not Win.” Sydney Morning Herald. October 17, 2003. https://www.smh.com.au/national/the-man-who-did-not-win-20031017-gdhlpn.htmlOdeblad E, Lindström G. Some preliminary observations on the proton magnetic resonance in biologic samples. Acta Radiol Suppl (Stockholm). 2008 Aug;434:57-61. doi: 10.1080/02841850802133337Paul C. Lauterbur – Biographical. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2024. Tue. 4 Jun 2024. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/2003/lauterbur/biographical/Plewes, Donald B., PhD, and Walter Kucharczyk, PhD. “Physics of MRI: A Primer.” MR Physics for Clinicians. April 12, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.23642Prasad, Amit. “The (Amorphous) Anatomy of an Invention: The Case of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).” Social Studies of Science, vol. 37, no. 4, 2007, pp. 533–60. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/25474534Purcell, E.M. et al. “Resonance Absorption by Nuclear Magnetic Moments in a Solid.” Physics Review. January 1, 1946. https://journals.aps.org/pr/pdf/10.1103/PhysRev.69.37“Raymond Damadian.” Lemelson-MIT. https://lemelson.mit.edu/award-winners/raymond-damadianSandomir, Richard. “Raymond Damadian, Creator of the First M.R.I. Scanner, Dies at 86.” New York Times. Aug. 17, 2022. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/08/17/science/raymond-damadian-dead.htmlSerai, Suraj, PhD, and Tony Dandino. “Why are MRI scans so loud?” Cincinnati Children’s Radiology Department Blog. October 13, 2016. https://radiologyblog.cincinnatichildrens.org/whats-with-all-the-noise/Sullivan, Walter. “Five Named as Winners of Lasker Medical Research Awards.” New York Times. Nov. 15, 1984. https://www.nytimes.com/1984/11/15/us/five-named-as-winners-of-lasker-medical-research-awards.htmlNational Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2000. Biographical Memoirs: Volume 78. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/9977.Wakefield, Julie. “The ‘Indomitable’ MRI.” Smithsonian. June 2000. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-indomitable-mri-29126670/See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Iodized Salt
Jun 5 2024
Iodized Salt
People started adding iodine to salt because in some parts of the world serious, chronic iodine deficiency was incredibly widespread, which was causing a range of health issues. But how was that solution arrived at? Research: "Iodine." World of Chemistry, Gale, 2000. Gale In Context: Science, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CV2432500388/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=42a73bea. Accessed 17 May 2024."Iodine." World of Scientific Discovery, Gale, part of Cengage Group, 2007. Gale In Context: Science, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CV1648500324/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=fabf4422. Accessed 17 May 2024.Bishai, David and Ritu Nalubola. “The History of Food Fortification in the United States: Its Relevance for Current Fortification Efforts in Developing Countries.” Economic Development and Cultural Change , Vol. 51, No. 1 (October 2002). https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/345361Cameron, A.T. “Iodine Prophylaxis and Endemic Goitre.” Canadian Public Health Journal, Vol. 21, No. 11 (NOVEMBER, 1930). Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41976052Cameron, A.T. “Iodine Prophylaxis and Endemic Goitre.” Canadian Public Health Journal, Vol. 21, No. 10 (OCTOBER, 1930). Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41976030Cavanaugh, Ray. “How the arrival of iodized salt 100 years ago changed America.” Washington Post. 5/1/2024. https://www.washingtonpost.com/history/2024/05/01/iodized-salt-100-years-deficiency/Feyrer, James et al. “The Cognitive Effects of Micronutrient Deficiency.” Journal of the European Economic Association, April 2017. Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/90023421Goodman, Johnah. “A National Evil: Jonah Goodman on the curse of the goitre in Switzerland.” London Review of Books. 11/30/2003. https://www.lrb.co.uk/the-paper/v45/n23/jonah-goodman/a-national-evilKimball, O.P. “History of the Prevention of Endemic Goitre.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1953.Kohn, Lawrence. “Goiter, Iodine and George W. Goler: The Rochester Experiment.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 3 (FALL, 1975). Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44450239Leung, Angela M et al. “History of U.S. iodine fortification and supplementation.” Nutrients vol. 4,11 1740-6. 13 Nov. 2012, doi:10.3390/nu4111740Markel, H. “’When it rains it pours’: endemic goiter, iodized salt, and David Murray Cowie, MD.” American journal of public health vol. 77,2 (1987): 219-29. doi:10.2105/ajph.77.2.219Markel, Howard. “A grain of salt.” The Milbank quarterly vol. 92,3 (2014): 407-12. doi:10.1111/1468-0009.12064McIntire, Tracey. “Gunpowder and Seaweed: The Story of Iodine.” National Museum of Civil War Medicine. 10/19/2022. https://www.civilwarmed.org/story-of-iodine/Newton, David E. "Iodine." Chemical Elements, edited by Kathleen J. Edgar, 2nd ed., UXL, 2010. Gale In Context: Science, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CV2640200041/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=a54dec8e. Accessed 17 May 2024.Niazi, Asfandyar Khan et al. “Thyroidology over the ages.” Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism vol. 15,Suppl 2 (2011): S121-6. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.83347Olsen, Robert. “Endemic Goiter in Switzerland: A Review of Recent Contributions to Its Etiology, Incidence, and Prevention.” Public Health Reports (1896-1970) , Jun. 9, 1933. Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4580807Pearce, Elizabeth N. “Is Iodine Deficiency Reemerging in the United States?” AACE Clinical Case Reports. Volume 1, Issue 1, Winter 2015. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2376060520303680Stanbury, John, and John T. Dunn. "Iodine." Encyclopedia of Food and Culture, edited by Solomon H. Katz, vol. 2, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003, pp. 281-283. Gale In Context: U.S. History, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3403400349/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=12f688cc. Accessed 17 May 2024.Zimmermann, Michael B. and Maria Andersson, GLOBAL ENDOCRINOLOGY: Global perspectives in endocrinology: coverage of iodized salt programs and iodine status in 2020, European Journal of Endocrinology, Volume 185, Issue 1, Jul 2021, Pages R13–R21, https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-21-0171Zoltan, Melanie Barton. "Salt." Food: In Context, edited by Brenda Wilmoth Lerner and K. Lee Lerner, vol. 2, Gale, 2011, pp. 699-702. In Context Series. Gale In Context: Global Issues, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX1918600212/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=21e3cd86. Accessed 17 May 2024.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Popcorn
Jun 3 2024
Popcorn
A lot of the stories that are told about popcorn in history – particularly in North America – are incorrect. Popcorn has been around for a very long time, though its rise to popularity as a snack has accelerated in recent years. Research: “Ancient Popcorn Discovered in Peru.” Smithsonian. Jan, 20, 2012. https://www.si.edu/newsdesk/releases/ancient-popcorn-discovered-perucom Editors “Orville Redenbacher.” Biography.com. April 2, 2014. https://www.biography.com/business-leaders/orville-redenbacherButler, Stephanie. “ A History of Popcorn.” History.com. Dec. 6, 2013. https://www.history.com/news/a-history-of-popcornDelgado, Michelle. “The History of Popcorn: How One Grain Became a Staple Snack.” Serious Eats. May 7, 2023. https://www.seriouseats.com/popcorn-history-movie-theatersDell’Amore, Christine. “Ancient Popcorn Found—Made 2,000 Years Earlier Than Thought in Peru.” National Geographic. Jan. 21, 2012. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/adventure/article/120119-national-popcorn-day-corn-peru-archaeology-food-scienceGeiling, Natasha. “Why do we eat popcorn at the movies?” Smithsonian. October 3, 2013. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/why-do-we-eat-popcorn-at-the-movies-475063/Goodspeed, T. H. “Plant Hunters in the Andes.” University of California Press. 1961. https://archive.org/details/planthuntersinan0000goodGrobman, Alexander, et al. “Preceramic maize from Paredones and Huaca Prieta, Peru.” January 17, 2011. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1120270109Meyers, F.J. “IMPROVEMENT IN CORN-POPPERS.” Patent No. 171,032. Dec. 14, 1875. https://patents.google.com/patent/US171032A/en?q=(pop-corn)&q=(corn-popping)&sort=old“MICROWAVE KEY TO POPCORN WAR.” New York Times. June 22, 1987. https://www.nytimes.com/1987/06/22/business/microwave-key-to-popcorn-war.htmlMola, Roger A. “Then and Now: Pass the Popcorn.” Smithsonian. March 2008. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/air-space-magazine/then-amp-now-pass-the-popcorn-13027292/“PopCorn: Ingrained in American’s Cultural History.” USDA National Agricultural Library. https://www.nal.usda.gov/exhibits/speccoll/exhibits/show/popcorn/early-historyThe Popcorn Board. “All About Popcorn.” https://www.popcorn.org/All-About-Popcorn/History-of-Popcorn“Popcorn Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Product (RTE, Microwave), By Distribution Channel (B2B, B2C), By Region (Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, MEA), And Segment Forecasts, 2022 – 2030.” Grandview Research. https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/popcorn-market-reportSmith, Andrew F. “Popped Culture: A Social History of Popcorn in America.” University of South Carolina Press. 1999.“Sugar: The First and Last Food Rationed on the World War II Home Front.” National Park Service. https://www.nps.gov/articles/000/sugar-the-first-and-last-food-rationed-on-the-world-war-ii-home-front.htmSee omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Gertrude Jekyll's Artistic Gardens
May 29 2024
Gertrude Jekyll's Artistic Gardens
Gertrude Jekyll was born into a 19th-century English family of means, but her life took an unconventional path for a woman in her circumstances, and she became an iconic and legendary horticulturist. Research: Tooley, Michael. "Jekyll, Gertrude (1843–1932), artist and garden designer." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. June 08, 2023. Oxford University Press. Date of access 13 May. 2024, https://proxy.bostonathenaeum.org:2261/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/9780198614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-37597"Gertrude Jekyll." Encyclopedia of World Biography Online, vol. 38, Gale, 2018. Gale In Context: U.S. History, link.gale.com/apps/doc/K1631010801/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=56c7d137. Accessed 13 May 2024.Gertrude Jekyll: The Official Website of the Jekyll Estate https://gertrudejekyll.co.uk/Edwards, Ambra. “Gertrude Jekyll: discover the life of the remarkable garden designer and writer.” Gardens Illustrated. 5/31/2023. https://www.gardensillustrated.com/gardens/gardeners/gertrude-jekyll-lifeHistoric England. “A Brief Introduction to the Remarkable Garden Designer, Gertrude Jekyll.” 11/29/2018. https://heritagecalling.com/2018/11/29/a-brief-introduction-to-the-remarkable-gertrude-jekyll/Van Valkenburgh, Michael R. “The Flower Gardens of Gertrude Jekyll and Their Twentieth-Century Transformations.” Design Quarterly , 1987, No. 137, The Flower Gardens of Gertrude Jekyll and Their Twentieth-Century Transformations. Via JSTOR. URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4091178Kehler, Grace. “Gertrude Jekyll and the Late-Victorian Garden Book: Representing Nature-Culture Relations.” Victorian Literature and Culture , 2007, Vol. 35, No. 2 (2007). https://www.jstor.org/stable/40347178Arnander, Primrose. “Gertrude Jekyll.” Historic Gardens Review , Autumn 1999, No. 4 (Autumn 1999). https://www.jstor.org/stable/44791169Festing, Sally. “Gertrude Jekyll.” London : Penguin. 1993.Jekyll, Francis. “Getrude Jekyll: A Memoir.” Bishop Round Table. Northampton, MA. 1934.  See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
The Art of Tyrus Wong
May 27 2024
The Art of Tyrus Wong
Over the course of an extraordinarily long career, Tyrus Wong worked across a range of media in a whole collection of industries – animation, live-action film, commercial art, public art, greeting cards, and in his last years, kitemaking in his personal workshop. Research: Tom, Pamela, writer and director. “Tyrus.” PBS American Masters. 9/8/2017. https://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/tyrus-about-the-film/8917/"Tyrus Wong." Encyclopedia of World Biography Online, Gale, 2022. Gale In Context: U.S. History, link.gale.com/apps/doc/K1631010885/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=943f33c3. Accessed 1 May 2024.PBS American Masters. “Biography.” https://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/tyrus-wong-biography/9197/Fang, Karen. “Commercial Design and Midcentury Asian American Art: The Greeting Cards of Tyrus Wong,” Panorama: Journal of the Association of Historians of American Art 7, no. 1 (Spring 2021), https://doi.org/10.24926/24716839.11548.Friedl, Erik. “Flights of Fancy.” 1987. Via YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=09Ta8BCrbLwWu, Tara. “How Tyrus Wong’s Christmas Cards Captivated the American Public.” Smithsonian. December 2020. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/tyrus-wong-christmas-card-captivated-american-public-180976239/Chang, Rosalind. “A Profile of Tyrus Wong.” Angel Island Immigrant Station Foundation. https://www.immigrant-voices.aiisf.org/Fox, Margalit. “Tyrus Wong, ‘Bambi’ Artist Thwarted by Racial Bias, Dies at 106.” New York Times. 12/30/2016. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/30/movies/tyrus-wong-dies-bambi-disney.htmlWong, Eddie. “Angel Island Profile: Tyrus Wong.” Angel Island Immigration Statoin Foundation. Via YouTube. 8/8/2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUTsngXHbH8Fang, Karen. “’Chinese Jesus’ in a Broom Closet: The Many Archives of Tyrus Wong.” Opening the Vault: Media Industry Studies and its Archives Peter Labuza, editor, Spectator 41:2 (Fall 2021): 20-30.See, Lisa. “On Gold Mountain: The One Hundred Year Odyssey of My Chinese-American Family.” Vintage Books. 1995.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Joseph F. Glidden and the Contentious Invention of Barbed Wire
May 21 2024
Joseph F. Glidden and the Contentious Invention of Barbed Wire
Joseph Glidden is known as the father of barbed wire, but who actually invented it was a matter of disagreement. As a consequence, Glidden's invention was embroiled in legal battles for years.  Research: “Barb Fence: Its Utility, Efficiency and Economy : a Book for the Farmer, the Gardener and the Country Gentleman.” Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Company. Lucius P. Goddard. Accessed online: https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=v_EoAAAAYAAJ&rdid=book-v_EoAAAAYAAJ&rdot=1“Barbed Wire.” The Burlington Hawk-Eye. May 3, 1879. https://www.newspapers.com/image/31320626/?match=1&terms=%22joseph%20f.%20glidden%22“Barbed Wire.” Chicago Tribune. Dec. 22, 1880. https://www.newspapers.com/image/349503001/?match=1&terms=%22joseph%20f.%20glidden%22“Barbed Wire: The Saga.” Joseph H. Glidden Homestead. https://www.gliddenhomestead.org/barbedwire.htmlBoardman, Mark. “The Winner.” True West. Sept. 22, 2022. https://truewestmagazine.com/article/the-winner/Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Joseph Farwell Glidden". Encyclopedia Britannica, 6 Mar. 2024, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joseph-Farwell-Glidden“Dekalb Gets New Hospital.” Republican-Northwestern. Oct. 30, 1906. https://www.newspapers.com/image/69739499/?match=1&terms=%22Joseph%20F.%20Glidden%22Glover, Robert. “The Haish-Glidden relationship.” Jacob Haish Story. April 22, 2018. http://www.jacobhaishstory.com/2018/04/glover-haish-glidden-relationship.htmlHaish, Jacob. “"A Reminiscent Chapter from the Unwritten History of Barb Wire Prior to and Immediately Following the Celebrated Decision of Judge Blodgette, December 15, 1880.” Accessed via Jacob Haish Story: http://www.jacobhaishstory.com/2016/10/a-reminiscent-chapter-from-unwritten.htmlHarford, Tim. “'The devil's rope': How barbed wire changed America.” BBC. Aug. 6, 2017. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-40448594“HISTORY OF DEKALB.” City of Dekalb. https://www.cityofdekalb.com/854/History-of-DeKalbJoseph F. Glidden Homestead and Historical Center. https://www.gliddenhomestead.org/index.htmlMcCallum, Henry D. “Barbed Wire in Texas.” The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, vol. 61, no. 2, 1957, pp. 207–19. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30241926Rumrill, Alan. F. “A Moment in Local History: Joseph Glidden’s Invention.” The Keene Sentinel. Aug. 19, 2023. https://www.sentinelsource.com/news/local/a-moment-in-local-history-joseph-gliddens-invention-by-alan-f-rumrill/article_fd52ab67-53cf-5ac3-a780-f2ab94411f16.html“Story of Barb Wire.” Belvedere Daily Republican. Jan. 11, 1906. https://www.newspapers.com/image/69693931/?match=1&terms=%22Joseph%20F.%20Glidden%22“The Washburn & Moen Maufacturing Company … “ Chicago Tribune. Nov. 13,1876. https://www.newspapers.com/image/349595774/?match=1&terms=%22jacob%20haish%22“WASHBURN & MOEN MANUF'G CO. et al. v. BEAT 'EM ALL BARBED-WIRE CO. et al.” U.S. Supreme Court. Accessed via Cornell Law School: https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/143/275  See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.