Sumerian Origins

Michael McPherson

Sumerian Origins

18. Enlil Vs Enki, Advanced Ancient Anunnaki Warfare and Technology
Oct 16 2022
18. Enlil Vs Enki, Advanced Ancient Anunnaki Warfare and Technology
Enlil - deriving from the theology of Nippur, which achieved dominance in Sumer early in the third millennium B.C. - did not entail the absorption of, or even any really encroachment upon, the jurisdictional province of other major gods. Enlil's authority- as that of Marduk of Babylon and Ashur of Assyria, which were little more than adaptations of this theology for other times and places- lay rather in his relationship to humanity than to the other gods. For Enlil personified the vital forces inherent in that part of cosmic geography - from the surface of the earth up to the vault of the skies- which most immediately affected the well-being of mankind (and of all living things), namely the life-sustaining ones of fertility, vegetation, and all the phenomena associated with the maintenance of an abundant food-supply. But Enlil's overlordship as regards the other gods, as distinct from his perceived relationship to humanity, was more honorific than substantive. He was the overlord of such gods as An, Inanna, Utu, and Nanna; but he neither delegated to them their respective jurisdictions, nor could he usurp them. Even more to the point, the Nippurian theology could not eradicate- nor is there evidence of any deliberate effort in this direction- the older and 'rivalling' theology of Eridu, wherein Enki was the supreme deity. Enki (Ea in the later Semitic literature) remained throughout totally independent of Enlil. He was the fountainhead of all the arts and civilisation and of wisdom in general, the archetypical Promethean god, the patron of, and spokesman for, mankind. In this guise he retained the power even to thwart Enlil's decision to destroy mankind through the primeval Flood alerting Atrahasis (later identified by the additional name Utanapishtim, the Mesopotamian prototype of Noah) of the impending catastrophe and giving him explicit and detailed instructions for securing the means to escape the fate awaiting him the rest of his fellow me
17. Gilgamesh and Enkidu Survive, Science Proves a 7,000 Year Old Mystery of Ancient Civilization
Oct 15 2022
17. Gilgamesh and Enkidu Survive, Science Proves a 7,000 Year Old Mystery of Ancient Civilization
The Ninevite version of the epic begins with a prologue in praise of Gilgamesh, part divine and part human, the great builder and warrior, knower of all things on land and sea. In order to curb Gilgamesh’s seemingly harsh rule, the god Anu causes the creation of Enkidu, a wild man who at first lives among animals. Soon, however, Enkidu is initiated into the ways of city life and travels to Uruk, where Gilgamesh awaits him. Tablet II describes a trial of strength between the two men in which Gilgamesh is the victor; thereafter, Enkidu is the friend and companion (in Sumerian texts, the servant) of Gilgamesh. In Tablets III–V the two men set out together against Huwawa (Humbaba), the divinely appointed guardian of a remote cedar forest, but the rest of the engagement is not recorded in the surviving fragments. In Tablet VI Gilgamesh, who has returned to Uruk, rejects the marriage proposal of Ishtar, the goddess of love, and then, with Enkidu’s aid, kills the divine bull that she sends to destroy him. Tablet VII begins with Enkidu’s account of a dream in which the gods Anu, Ea, and Shamash decide that Enkidu must die for slaying the bull. Enkidu then falls ill and dreams of the “house of dust” that awaits him. Gilgamesh’s lament for his friend and the state funeral of Enkidu are narrated in Tablet VIII. Afterward, Gilgamesh makes a dangerous journey (Tablets IX and X) in search of Utnapishtim, the survivor of the Babylonian Flood, in order to learn from him how to escape death. When he finally reaches Utnapishtim, Gilgamesh is told the story of the Flood and is shown where to find a plant that can renew youth (Tablet XI). But after Gilgamesh obtains the plant, it is seized and eaten by a serpent, and Gilgamesh returns, still mortal, to Uruk. An appendage to the epic, Tablet XII, relates the loss of objects called pukku and mikku (perhaps “drum” and “drumstick”) given to Gilgamesh by Ishtar. The epic ends with the return of the spirit of Enkidu, who promises to recover the objects and then gives a grim report on the underworld.
10. Gilgamesh, His Neanderthal Twin, the Snake and Enoch
Sep 21 2022
10. Gilgamesh, His Neanderthal Twin, the Snake and Enoch
According to the king lists, kingship remained in the city of Kish for 24,000 years after the flood (maybe 250 years in real life?), until it was taken to the city of Uruk during the reigns of Dumuzi the Fisherman and Gilgamesh. The kings of the first dynasty of Uruk were especially important to the Sumerian record keepers, who list epithets for the first five kings of the dynasty. The leading Sumerologist, Samuel Noah Kramer, refers to this early Uruk era as the Sumerian Heroic Age, paralleling the Heroic Age described by the early Greek poet Hesiod. The fifth king of Uruk, Gilgamesh, was especially important, not just in Sumerian mythology, but all the succeeding nations and empires for the next thousand years. But even though the kings of Kish were relatively unimportant compared to the forthcoming dynasty, the title King of Kish remained an important title for hundreds of years and was used even by kings who had no control of the city. It was perhaps during the Kish dynasty that the Akkadians first infiltrated into northern Iraq, having been encouraged by the weakness of Sumerian authority after the Shurrupuk flood. There are 23 kings in the Kish dynasty who ruled after the flood, most of them with Semitic names. Although the preceding dynasty of Kish was no where near as popular as Uruks warrior-kings, the pious 13th king of Kish, Etana, who is said to have flown up to heaven on the wings of an eagle, was of particular interest. Although only partially-missing Babylonian versions of the myth have been found, depictions of Etana riding the eagle are among the most popular Sumerian seals cut, some dating to the 2500s B.C., proving that the story is much older. The fragmented myth is also corroborated by the Sumerian king lists which say that he ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign lands. The king lists have him as ruling either 635 or 1,560 years, and he is mentioned as residing in the netherworld in the Epic of Gilgamesh. The Myth of Etana begins by talking of a city planned by the gods, probably Kish, and that they decided to make Etana the architect. Once again, the story begins with creation of the world and speaks of the revolt of the servant-gods, the Igigi, but this time it is the making of the first king, Etana, not of humankind, that restores order between heaven and earth:
5. Sumerian Civilization and Anunnaki Literature, Cosmogony and the Birth of the Gods
Jul 9 2022
5. Sumerian Civilization and Anunnaki Literature, Cosmogony and the Birth of the Gods
But there came a stirring in the darkness and the great gods arose. First came Lahmu and Lahame; and many epochs later, Ansar and Kisar, component parts of whose names signify 'Host of Heaven' and 'Host of Earth.' These latter names we may perhaps accept as symbolical of the spirits of heaven and of earth respectively. Many days afterward came forth their son Anu, god of the heavens. At this point it should be explained that the name Tiawath affords a parallel to the expression T'hom or 'deep' of the Old Testament. Practically the same word is used in Assyrian in the form Tamtu, to signify the 'deep sea.' The reader will recall that it was upon the face of the deep that the spirit of God brooded, according to the first chapter of Genesis. The word and the idea which it contains are equally Semitic, but strangely enough it has an Akkadian origin. For the conception that the watery abyss was the source of all things originated with the worshippers of the sea-god Ea at Eridu. They termed the deep apsu, or a 'house of knowledge' wherein their tutelar god was supposed to have his dwelling, and this word was of Akkadian descent. This apsu, or 'abyss,' in virtue of the animistic ideas prevailing in early Akkadian times, had become personalized as a female who was regarded as the mother of Ea. She was known by another name as well as that of Apsu, for she was also entitled Zigarun, the 'heaven,' or the 'mother that has begotten heaven and earth'; and indeed she seems to have had a form or variant in which she was an earth-goddess as well. But it was not the existing earth or heaven that she represented in either of her forms, but the primeval abyss, out of which both of these were fashioned. Music Credits by Artlist: Scratch - Pablo Suarez Apnea - Olivier Olsen Artic Blue - Olivier Olsen Blue Water - Olivier Olsen Fallen Angels - Ketil Lien The Tree Of Life - Olivier Olsen The Wise - Olivier Olsen
4. Archaeology of the Anunnaki Sumerians, Revealing Strange Artifacts and Mesopotamian Mysteries
Jul 7 2022
4. Archaeology of the Anunnaki Sumerians, Revealing Strange Artifacts and Mesopotamian Mysteries
Leonard Woolley, an archaeologist from Britain, returned to Iraq in 1922, almost 4,000 years after the nuclear ancient catastrophe, to uncover ancient Mesopotamia. An imposing ziggurat standing out in the desert plain drew him to the nearby site of Tell el-Muqayyar, where he began excavating. As old walls, artifacts, and inscriptions were unearthed, he realized he was digging up ancient Ur-Ur of the Chaldees. Twelve years of his work were conducted through a joint expedition between the British Museum in London and the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia. For those institutions, Sir Leonard Woolley found some of the most dramatic objects and artifacts in Ur. However, what he discovered may well surpass anything ever exhibited before. In the course of removing layers of soil deposited by desert sands, the elements, and time from the ruins, the ancient city began to take shape-here were the walls, there were the harbors and canals, the residential quarters, the palace, and the Tummal, the elevated sacred area. Woolley's discovery of a cemetery dated thousands of years ago included unique 'royal' tombs discovered by digging at its edge is the find of the century. The excavations in the city's residential sections established that Ur's inhabitants followed the Sumerian custom of burying their dead right under the floors of their dwellings, where families continued to live. It was thus highly unusual to find a cemetery with as many as 1,800 graves in it. From predynastic (before Kingship began) to Seleucid times, they were concentrated mainly within the sacred precinct. The graves were buried on top of each other, burials were interred in another grave, and some graves were apparently re-interred. To date graves more accurately, Woolley's workers dug trenches of up to fifty feet deep to cut through layers.