Dairy Science Digest

reaganbluel

Dairy Science Digest - a podcast developed to share the MOST current research published in the Journal of Dairy science. Hear directly from the research authors on how their results can impact your herd’s profitability. Science you can base your management decisions around. Designed to rarely exceed 30 minutes, this podcast provides ONLY the ”need to know” info for dairy producers. Keywords: dairy, science, reproduction, production, extension, cattle, MIZZOU, MU, Dairy Team, #2xAg2030 read less
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Episodes

DSD 5.2 | Stop fresh cow subclinical mastitis in its tracks without withhold
4d ago
DSD 5.2 | Stop fresh cow subclinical mastitis in its tracks without withhold
Getting the fresh cow off to a strong start has ripple effects for her entire lactation. Subclinical mastitis rarely gets treated due to an unawareness or a lack of interest in pulling her from the tank. Nisin is a naturally occurring antimicrobial that’s been used widely as a food preservative. Dr. Zelmar Rodriguez and his team from Michigan State University looked at using this familiar antimicrobial to treat subclinical mastitis. The result, reduced clinical cases of mastitis. Listen in to learn more about the return on investment of using Nisin on subclinical mastitis found in the first week of milk using CMT. These findings are published in the recently released paper titled: Economic impact of treatment of subclinical mastitis in early lactation using intramammary nisin Topics of discussion 1:20       Introduction of Dr. Zelmar Rodriguez 2:20       What is nisin 3:42       No dump milk 4:10       Subclinical mastitis assessment 5:00       CMT discussion 6:00       What day should we sample 7:00       Subclinical mastitis prevention 7:39       How does CMT work? 8:46       Factors that impact effectiveness               9:18       What will nisin not work on – gram negative discussion 12:36    ROI/cow 13:23    Treatment regimen 13:42    Assessment to begin protocol 15:36    Effect of employee training         17:16    Model at herd level – ROI 19:33    FDA status 20:22    Limitations of using DHIA hot sheet 22:13    What do you want boots on the ground dairymen to know Featured article: Economic impact of treatment of subclinical mastitis in early lactation using intramammary nisin   #2xAg2030; #journalofdairyscience; #openaccess; #MODAIRY; #nisin; #earlylactation; #subclinical; #mastitis; #treatment; #dairysciencedigest; #ReaganBluel;
DSD 5.1 | Energy saved is energy earned
Jan 16 2024
DSD 5.1 | Energy saved is energy earned
Efficient production is the name of the game, and the key to an efficient cow is her rumen microbiome. The highlighted research this month focuses in on the intersection of Genome of the host cow, Microbiome within the rumen and the Intersection of the two. To best understand the rumen efficiency story we talk this month with Dr. Guillermo Martinez Boggio from University of Wisconsin, about his recently released paper titled: Host and rumen microbiome contributions to feed efficiency traits in Holstein cows. Here they studied how the rumen and the host interact and if that interaction can become a selection trait in the future. Much of the discussion today is focused around Carbon chasing. Just like “a penny saved is a penny earned,” whenever carbon is conserved by the rumen microorganism, energy is conserved. This carbon unit of energy can then be used to produce more milk when conserved.  Listen in to learn more about the interconnected web between the cow and her microbiome. Topics of discussion 1:52       Introduction of Dr. Guillermo Martinez Boggio 3:15       Description of project 3:41       Dry matter intake vs Residual feed intake 5:09       Efficient use of Carbon 7:04       Saved energy yields more 8:25       Community of rumen organisms              10:29    What model best served to identify the most efficient digestion 11:35    Using microbiome as another source of information used genomic equation 12:02    Genome | Microbiome | Interaction of MicrobiomeXGenome 12:17    The cow controls the rumen microbiome 12:51    Sire selection traits         14:08    How to obtain the most reliable breeding values              15:35    Using the rumen microorganisms for prediction and selection 16:45    Future research What do you want dairy producers to know from your research 17:21    Identify the “extreme” cows 18:12    Proxy traits   Featured article: Host and rumen microbiome contributions to feed efficiency traits in Holstein cows. #2xAg2030; #journalofdairyscience; #openaccess; #MODAIRY; #microbiome; #methanereduction; #sustainabledairy; #rumen; #stillbirth; #dairysciencedigest; #ReaganBluel;
DSD 4.12 | Mature mamas sail through transition with beef cross calves
Dec 15 2023
DSD 4.12 | Mature mamas sail through transition with beef cross calves
Beef on dairy is here to stay. These cross animals generate a revenue stream for dairies as it lubricates the parallel industry of beef production. Much research is being poured into this topic to ensure producers can make wise breeding choices going forward. This month we talk with Bailey Basiel from Penn State University, about their recently released paper titled: The impact of beef sire breed on dystocia, still birth, gestation length, health, and lactation performance of cows that carry beef x dairy calves. While we all know how desirable this cross calf is to the market, there’s very little knowledge about how these breedings impact the dam, until now. Listen in to how this research team sought to determine if there were any negative production implications to your dairy herd when you breed to beef. Topics of discussion 1:27       Introduction of Bailey Basiel 2:26       Objectives of the trial – Impact carrying beef on dairy calf might have on the dairy cow 3:24       Board invited review of Beef on Dairy 4:05       Historical background of Beef on Dairy 5:15       Calf fed Holstein model 7:54       Data set description 10:05     Beef semen description 10:47     Gestation length 13:00     Management changes based on gestation length                 14:00     Wagyu crosses 15:00     Long gestation, does that equal stillbirth? 17:10     Health impacts for dams bred to beef semen 20:35     Next research / records needed for genetic assessment -               23:23     What do you want dairy producers to know from your research Featured article: The impact of beef sire breed on dystocia, still birth, gestation length, health, and lactation performance of cows that carry beef x dairy calves.   Also mentioned in the discussion: Translational Animal Science Article - Beef on Dairy Review DSD 1.5 | Beef on Dairy – sire conception rate, Taylor McWhorter DSD 4.6 | Accounting for Accelerated genetic improvement, Dr. Asha Miles   #2xAg2030; #journalofdairyscience; #openaccess; #MODAIRY; #beefondairy; #sexedsemen; #calffedmodel; #gestation; #stillbirth; #dairysciencedigest; #ReaganBluel;
DSD 4.11 | Reproduction Revolution
Nov 16 2023
DSD 4.11 | Reproduction Revolution
Over the past 30 years the reproduction status of dairy has improved substantially, largely due to research around reproduction synchronization. This month we talk to Dr. Paul Fricke and Megan Lauber from the University of Wisconsin, about their recently released paper titled: Effect of postpartum body condition score change on the pregnancy outcomes of lactating Jersey cows inseminated at first service with sexed Jersey or conventional beef semen after a synchronized estrus versus a synchronized ovulation. We discuss the how to maximize the equation of fertility, through management. Once optimized, you’ll find your herd entering the “high fertility cycle”. When all the stars align, production is high – disease is low and you are able to begin to stack reproductive technologies – such as genomically determined breedings using sexed and beef semen use following the ideal synchronization. Listen in to learn how to get your herd there and the physiology behind it.   Topics of discussion 1:54       Introduction of Dr. Paul Fricke & Megan Lauber 4:23       Objectives of the trial – stacking reproductive strategies 3:34       On farm monitoring – data collected 6:10       Getting all the cows on day 7 – the key to unlocking fertility 7:44       The history of Luteolysis – why is it so critical? 9:57       Rate limiting step of pregnancy 12:03     2019-2021 xx and beef semen usage 13:54     Research protocols and design 16:20     Equation of reproduction; comparing double ovsync vs estrus        17:50     Estrus or Double ovsync for Sexed semen 16:14     Day 19 – 40 pregnancy loss 17:30     What’s happening when the GnRH shot is given? 22:13     The impact of Body Condition Score (BCS) change on fertility | >0.5          24:53     High fertility cycle 25:52     Not all cows loose condition through transition, those that did were impacted 26:38     Results: Double ovsync helps mitigate poor transition (Figure 4) 29:09     Why does it work? What physiology controls it? 30:15     Fat regulates GnRH?! 32:30     What do you want dairy producers to know from your research Featured article: Effect of postpartum body condition score c hange on the pregnancy outcomes of lactating Jersey cows inseminated at first service with sexed Jersey or conventional beef semen after a synchronized estrus versus a synchronized ovulation. Also mentioned in the discussion: Characterization of semen type prevalence and allocation in Holstein and Jersey females in the United States   #2xAg2030; #journalofdairyscience; #openaccess; #MODAIRY; #reproductionrevolution; #highfertilitycycle; #Ovsync; #DoubleOvSync; #transition; #transitiondairy; #dairysciencedigest; #ReaganBluel
DSD 4.10 | Prevent Early Embryonic Losses
Oct 16 2023
DSD 4.10 | Prevent Early Embryonic Losses
Pregnancy is the key to profitability, ensuring your herd remains in the most profitable phase of production. However, these early embryos are delicate and often are not carried out through the entire 283 days of gestation. This month we talk with Dr. Stephen LaBlanc, from the University of Guelph about quantifying the frequency of early pregnancy loss in healthy animal and his team’s quest to determine the impact of a failed transition on the cow’s ability to carry the pregnancy to term. Through management, a producer can prevent the spiral of negative events that result in increased odds of pregnancy loss. The research team determined day 19 pregnancy and tracked the success, or failure, through day 63. Listen in to hear what different parameters they found to have an increased probability of early pregnancy loss. These findings were published in the Journal of Dairy Science article titled, “The associations of inflammatory and reproductive tract disorders postpartum and early pregnancy loss in dairy cows” This open access article, is available for download to view while you listen in! Topics of discussion 1:32       Introduction of Dr. LaBlanc 2:15       Description of Research Herds 3:34       On farm monitoring – data collected 5:55       Uterine sampling 7:32       Uterine cytology at 5 weeks postpartum 8:53       Blood progesterone 9:53       Common cycling rate in early lactation 10:52     Day 19 pregnancy analysis 14:03     Figure 1: Predicted probably of pregnancy – Healthy vs diseased transition 15:19     Conception frequency 16:14     Day 19 – 40 pregnancy loss 17:30     Metritis hangover 18:34     Figure 2: Predicted probably of pregnancy – number of clinical disease 20:00     Single disease vs multiple clinical diseases impact on pregnancy loss 22:31     Driving force to what predicts pregnancy loss in a dairy herd 24:13     One in Five cows 24:49     One two punch of failure 25:05     Inflammation effect on the ovary 27:53     What do you want dairy producers to know from your research #2xAg2030; #journalofdairyscience; @jdairyscience; #openaccess; #MODAIRY; #earlyembryonicloss; #pregloss, #Ploss; #transition; #transitiondairy; #dairysciencedigest; #ReaganBluel https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(23)00726-9/fulltext
DSD 4.9 | Is your starch locked up by Zein proteins?
Sep 19 2023
DSD 4.9 | Is your starch locked up by Zein proteins?
Corn silage is such piece in your ration. Much work has been done by corn breeders to create the most ideal plant with high yields, digestible forage AND starch to support lactation. This month we talk with Dr. José Varela and feature a foundational silage project he and his team worked on at the University of Wisconsin to better understand specifically how zein proteins around corn starch particles change overtime when fermented. Corn breeders throughout the Land Grant University system collaborate and work hard to ensure the next line of genetically superior forage will perform on your operation - but genetics can only go so far. Silage inventory management ensures that the perfect alignment of fully fermented feed for your herd. This project studied the differences in nutrient availability between 0, 1, 2, 4 & 8 months of fermentation. Listen in to best understand the risks of feeding green chop. This timely topic is released while many dairies are in the field, or having just finished up with harvest. Take a listen in to best understand the value gained towards improving starch availability for your herd. These findings were published in the Journal of Dairy Science featured article titled, “Effect of Endosperm Type and Storage Length of Whole Plant Corn Silage on Nitrogen Fraction, Fermentation Products, Zein Profile and Starch Digestibility” Open access, available for download. Topics of discussion 1:51 Introduction of Dr. Varela 4:00 Kernel Research – Starch matrix 4:54 Description of the corn anatomy 5:30 Three major structures of the kernel 7:11 Vitreousness of the corn kernel 7:45 Role of land grants in research 8:41 Improving the kernel endosperm could also have agronomic flaws 9:58 The process of plot research – self vs cross fertilization to study kernel change   12:19 Chopping silage 12:33 Fermentation over time 13:17 How did the silage change over time 14:08 Results 15:28 α-zeins break down during fermentation 16:03 Figure 2 16:30 Feeding Green Chop 18:42 Drought and high temperatures 21:05 Silage analysis 22:17 Invitro starch digestibility: vitreousness or α-zeins? 23:53 What would you like boots on the ground to know about your research project? 25:17 Forage inventory – make a plan 26:26 Inoculate with protease?   #2xAg2030; #journalofdairyscience; @jdairyscience; #openaccess; #MODAIRY; #protease; #landgrantresearch; #cornsilage, #starch; #milkyieldperacre; #agronomics, #dairysciencedigest; #ReaganBluel https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(23)00558-1/pdf
DSD 4.8 | How does grass-based milk impact human nutrition?
Aug 16 2023
DSD 4.8 | How does grass-based milk impact human nutrition?
Research in Ireland is focused around better understanding the intersection of management and cattle nutrition on the quality of the milk produced within a system. This month we talk specifically about three different feeding strategies – TMR, PMR or grass based investigated for an entire lactation. The vast majority of Irish dairymen attempt to maximize use of grass as the primary feed source for their nation’s dairy herd. Therefore food scientists Dr. André Brodkorb and Mark Timlin and team at Teagasc in Ireland set out to capture quantifiable differences in the milk between systems. Listen in this month to learn more about the changes in milk quality that could have marketing implications. In addition to shifts in fatty acid profile they also captured milk processing parameter changes. We discuss the possible role that might have on preparing milk for their export markets. These findings were published in the Journal of Dairy Science featured article titled, Impact of varying levels of pasture allowance on the nutritional quality and functionality of milk throughout lactation” Open access, available for download. Topics of discussion 2:23 Introduction of researchers 7:11 Describe the Research Herd 8:27 Fatty Acid Analysis 11:00 Biologically relevant CLAs 11:26 Description of 2 types of trans-fatty acids 11:58 CLA concentration differences 12:25 Omega 3 Fatty Acid concentrations 12:44 Increase of ‘good fats’ 13:39 Decreased total fat production 15:16 Somatic Cell count differences – Figure 1 17:38 Figure 3 – separate feeding systems visually by FA 17:56 Figure 4 – visual heat map distinguishing dietary trt 18:42 Biomarkers to determine the difference between grass and TMR 21:36 Expect a production volume decrease 22:43 Grass fed dairy standards 24:21 Pilot scale test products for human intervention trial 27:49 Changes in milk and the impact on processing 30:52 UHT pasteurization and impact on nutrition, AA & FA  34:32 What would you like boots on the ground to know about your research project. #2xAg2030; #journalofdairyscience; @jdairyscience; #openaccess; #MODAIRY; #grassbasedmilk; #CLA, #grazing; #seasonaldairy; #fattyacid, #dairysciencedigest; #ReaganBluel https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(23)00433-2/fulltext
DSD 4.7 | Ketosis and Antioxidant ability - Chicken or the egg?
Jul 16 2023
DSD 4.7 | Ketosis and Antioxidant ability - Chicken or the egg?
DSD 4.7 | Is there a relationship between Ketosis and antioxidant ability For years, dairy producers have worked towards best understanding all the challenges a cow experiences as she transitions from dry into lactation. If we can best identify the animals who take this transition in stride, we can work towards improving the single most challenging part of dairy production. This month, we are joined by two Belgium researchers looking to examine the relationship between antioxidant activity and ketotis, specifically BHBA. Dr. Fievez, ruminant nutritionist at Ghent University - in Belgium, worked with PhD candidate MQ Zhang to study the metabolic and antioxidant parameters of 110 animals through transition.   Listen in to hear what you can learn about the complex transition dairy cow! These findings were published in the Journal of Dairy Science article titled, “Transition cow clusters with distinctive antioxidant ability and their relation to performance and metabolic status in early lactation.” Open access, available for download. Topics of discussion 3:17       Importance of determining Antioxidative Ability 4:44       Hypothesis – structure of the project 5:16       Metabolic parameters studied and their relationship to oxidation 5:31       Background of BHBA 6:02       Negative energy balance - 6:27       NEFA and Low or High antioxidant activity 6:58       Cows with Lower Antioxidant activity have lower milk yield           7:46       Oxidative Stress and damage – what does it look like? 9:29       How the cow Balances – monitor enzyme profile 10:19     Description of the research herd 11:07     Results – Figure 6;  cows with HAA in early lactation, rarely develop metabolic disease 12:33     How NEFA add to oxidative status 12:49     Oxidative action and immune function 16:09     LAA – Higher BHBA – tended to be higher NEFA 18:01     What do you want boots on the ground dairymen to know? 18:49     Dietary inclusion 19:20     Closure   #2xAg2030; #journalofdairyscience; @jdairyscience; #openaccess; #MODAIRY; #antioxidant; #earlylactation, #transition; #transitiondairy; #ketosis, #BHBA; #ReaganBluel https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(23)00351-X/fulltext
DSD 4.6 | Accounting for accelerated genetic improvement
Jun 15 2023
DSD 4.6 | Accounting for accelerated genetic improvement
Producers are becoming increasingly willing to make strides in the herd’s genetic progress through using embryo transfer (ET). We’ve seen a 12% increase in this management practice. Dr. Asha Miles, a Research Geneticist from USDA, talks with us about the sire evaluation program and specifically about the impact of on farm reporting of embryo transfer on the data set. Dr. Miles describes a dataset, updated 3x/year, available to all - accessible through the US Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding portal. This dataset can help producers unlock answers to questions about ideal sires for the herd. She recommends (1) the queries tab if you’re looking for a specific animal who has been genotyped and (2) Top Animal Listing where you can identify the ideal sire on specific indexes or traits.   These findings were published in the Journal of Dairy Science article titled, “Improving national fertility evaluations by accounting for the rapid rise of embryo transfer in US dairy cattle.” Open access, available for download. Topics of discussion 2:34       Greater than 90 million data points, verification of reproductive performance and collection of data 3:43       Overview of trends in the industry 4:04       Figure 1: Embryo Transfer – recent changes (Figure available on page 5) 6:09        Why has ET increased so much over the past 2 years?   8:14        Sire conception data – identifying / addressing unreported ET implant in dataset to improve genetic        evaluations through an edit, to limit bias.   10:28     Talk about Young sires – how can producers be sure that they are using reliable sires 11:55  Some of the bulls with the biggest change in PTAs with our edits were Young Bulls 14:37  How can dairy producers better report data to ensure they are captured 16:44 Transfer of data from herd software   17:44  Sires of the next generation (Figure 6 available on page 10) 18:38  US Council of Dairy Cattle Breeding (USCDCB)– where can they find and what should producers be looking for? 20:10 Net Merit – economic index – Lifetime profit potential 21:11 Personalizing matings 22:44 Reach out – ask for help if you want to advance your herd 24:13 If you have research ideas for USDA reach out #2xAg2030; #journalofdairyscience; @jdairyscience; #openaccess; #MODAIRY; #sireconception; #SCR, #ET; #embryotransfer; #youngsires, #dairysciencedigest; #ReaganBluel https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(23)00286-2/pdf
DSD 3.12 | One minute delay is costing you
Dec 16 2022
DSD 3.12 | One minute delay is costing you
On-farm data mining from your parlor equipment could help you identify bimodality in your herd. Bimodality refers to delayed milk ejection during the early phase of the milking. Previous research and repeated work by M. Wieland’s team has shown that a delay in milk let down can result in a significant loss of milk. Equipped with this information our guest this month, Dr. Matthias Wieland, would take a sophisticated tool on farms to test parlor efficiency and effectiveness in milkout. One trip he wondered – Could we reliability use parlor equipment to make similar assessments? This month we learn the answer to that question highlighted in the featured article, “Comparison of 2 types of milk flow meters for detecting bimodality in dairy cows”. Listen in to learn more about the negative impacts of bimodality in your herd, what parlor equipment can do to help and ultimately how to motivate the parlor staff to break the cycle of bimodality. A little attention on this low hanging fruit could make a big impact in your bottomline - your software may be collecting all the information needed to manage through bimodality.   For more information visit: Quality milk production services (QMPS) https://www.vet.cornell.edu/animal-health-diagnostic-center/programs/quality-milk-production Other Recently published, relevant articles from Wieland Risk factors for delayed milk ejection in Holstein dairy cows milked 3 times per day, Wieland et al. Journal of Dairy Science June 27, 2022 The effect of 2 different premilking stimulation regimens, with and without manual forestripping, on teat tissue condition and milking performance in Holstein dairy cows milked 3 times daily J. Dairy Sci. 2020   #2xAg2030; #journalofdairyscience; @jdairyscience; #openaccess; #MODAIRY
DSD 3.11 | Ultrasound assessment of pneumonia
Nov 15 2022
DSD 3.11 | Ultrasound assessment of pneumonia
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a costly concern primarily during the calf phase production. This is especially relevant to veal production, when young and venerable calves are commingled from many farms. However, BVD breakouts can also occur on calf ranches raising dairy x beef calves or even individual dairy farms. This month Dr. Stan Jourquin joins us from Ghent University in Belgium to discuss his article is titled, “Dynamics of subclinical pneumonia in male dairy calves in relation to antimicrobial therapy and production outcomes”. Listen in to learn how pneumonia might be lurking in your herd without your knowledge. Consider ways to use ultrasound as a tool to quickly and reliability assess animals upon receipt to allow for differential management. Overall losses, from chronically ill animals, could be decreased by warding off the spread of infection and promoting early cure. Once lungs are severely consolidated, these animals are 4.2x more likely to become chronic and experience -0.25 lbs average daily gain over this phase of production. For more information visit: Open access Journal article: https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(22)00644-0/fulltext  UC Davis BRD Clinical symptom scoring system: https://www.vmtrc.ucdavis.edu/sites/g/files/dgvnsk5141/files/local_resources/pdfs/BRD_ANR_Brochure_Nov%202016%20FINAL.PDF     #2xAg2030; #journalofdairyscience; @jdairyscience; #openaccess; #MODAIRY