Increasing Student Success

David Arendale

This is an essential guide for educators, administrators, policymakers, and the media. Glossaries are dynamic expressions of current language usage. Education has changed dramatically in recent years, and so must also the language used to describe and define them. We believe this glossary is useful for a wider field of educators promoting student success. This glossary provides precise language and definitions to use when communicating with peers and more effectively influencing administrators, legislators, and the media. read less
EducationEducation

Episodes

Introduction to the Essential Glossary for Student Success
Feb 16 2024
Introduction to the Essential Glossary for Student Success
Language is not static. It flows like a river in response to the riverbank and the rocks that border and run beneath it. In the same way, glossaries are dynamic expressions of current language usage. Developmental education and learning assistance have changed dramatically in recent years, and so must also the language used to describe and define them. This glossary is useful for the wide field of educators involved with promoting student success. It provides precise language and definitions to use when communicating with peers and more effectively influencing administrators, legislators, and the media. Some of these glossary terms are emerging with frequent use while others are declining. This is why this glossary is not static and future editions will continue to reflect the changes in language. Based on advice from some of the reviewers to make this glossary more accessible to readers, I reorganized it into different topical categories rather than a traditional alphabetical order. I hope this format will not only make it easier to locate a particular glossary term, but also discover related terms in the same category. The nine glossary categories are: (a) teaching and learning process, (b) antiracism and racism, (c) assessment, (d) copyright and academic integrity, (e) pedagogies for teaching and learning, (f) program management, (g) student-to-student learning, (h) transitional courses and programs, and (i) less acceptable glossary terms.This third edition of the glossary of developmental education and learning assistance terms has dramatically changed since the last edition 14 years ago. For that reason, the name of this glossary has changed and reflects its use in the wider education community. These terms could be useful for educators working in learning assistance, learning centers, developmental-level courses, first-year experience courses and programs, orientation courses and programs, federally-funded TRIO and other equity programs, and instructors teaching first-year and subsequent courses in the general course curriculum. In recognition of the expanded scope of this glossary and broader utility for other members involved with postsecondary education, the glossary title has become more inclusive, Essential Glossary for Increasing Postsecondary Student Success: Administrators, Faculty, Staff, and Policymakers.
Teaching and Learning Process Part One of Two
Feb 17 2024
Teaching and Learning Process Part One of Two
Teaching and Learning Process            This general collection of teaching and learning processes encompasses all glossary terms that were not easily assigned into the other eight categories of this glossary. Check the other eight topical glossaries for relevant terms that apply to your work. A comprehensive glossary is The Greenwood Dictionary of Education (Collins & O’Brien, 2011). A sample of specialty glossaries are available online: ●      disabilities (https://www.washington.edu/doit/glossary-disability-related-terms)●      literacy (https://www.literacyworldwide.org/get-resources/literacy-glossary) ●      reading (https://iowareadingresearch.org/reading-glossary), and ●      writing (https://www.unl.edu/writing/glossary)  academic advising1. Definitions: (a) Conversation between a student and a faculty or staff member regarding progress towards completing a program of study aligned with the student’s life goals; and (b) In some advising models, students talk with a trained student for some issues regarding advising such as scheduling options or sometimes on issues before the students meet with a staff or faculty member. 2. Examples: Career aspirations, selection of an academic program of study, course enrollment selection, identification of life goals, and developing education action plans.3: Compare with ACADEMIC COACHING, MENTORING, and PEER EDUCATOR. academic coaching1. Definitions: (a) Students implement more effective strategies through guidance by an advanced peer or professional. The relationship is designed to model successful learning behaviors and create accountability of the student to their coach for higher academic results. This coaching occurs through a series of meetings during the academic term; and (b) ACADEMIC COACHING may be provided by a faculty member, staff member, or a trained student.2. Examples: Identify learning preferences, habits of working, and difficulties or barriers to success.3. Compare with ACADEMIC ADVISING, MENTORING and PEER EDUCATOR. academic literacies1. Definition: (a) Understanding, writing, listening, speaking, critical thinking, and habits of mind that foster academic achievement expected of college students; (b) Understanding a range of academic vocabulary in context; (c) Making meaning beyond the level of a sentence; and (d) Evaluating information to determine if it is fact or opinion and knowing what counts as evidence (Weideman, 2014).2. Compare with DISCIPLINARY LITERACIES. academic skillsSee BASIC ACADEMIC SKILLS academic survival skillsSee BASIC ACADEMIC SKILLS and STUDY SKILLS academic tenacity1. Definition: “Non-cognitive factors that promote long-term learning and achievement can be brought together under the label ACADEMIC TENACITY. At its most basic level, it is about working hard, and working smart, for a long time. More specifically, it is about the mindsets and skills that allow students to look beyond short-term concerns to longer-term or higher-order goals, and withstand challenges and setbacks to persevere toward these goals (Dweck et al., 2014, p. 4).2. Examples: “(a) Belong academically and socially, (b) See school as relevant to their future, (c) Work hard and can postpone immediate pleasures, (d) Not derailed by intellectual or social difficulties, (e) Seek out challenges, and (f) Remain engaged over the long haul” (Dweck et al., 2014, p. 4).3. Compare with FIXED MINDSET, GRIT, GROWTH MINDSET, and SELF-REGULATED LEARNER. achievement gap1. Definitions: (a) Disparity of educational performance among the general student population, especially groups defined by socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender identity, sexual orientation, (dis)ability, immigration status, and other demographic measures; and (b) Difference in standardized test score gaps may result in long-term gaps such as persistence towards graduation and workforce employment. 2. Some educators argue that the ACHIEVEMENT GAP is inaccurate since it often relies upon college entry standardized-exam scores and measures of student achievement that are heavily dependent upon exams employing multi-choice questions. These educators argue that these questions are culturally biased due to the format of the questions and the academic content, often based on Western cultural content by White authors. Based on the ongoing scholarly debate before the next edition of this glossary, the term ACHIEVEMENT GAP may be moved to the Less Acceptable Term category. More scholars are using the term OPPORTUNITY GAP instead since it emphasizes the structural reasons for the gap rather than implying that there might be something wrong with the students on the wrong side of the ACHIEVEMENT GAP.3. Compare with OPPORTUNITY GAP. active learning1. Definition: Strategies that engage students actively with their learning through what they do and think rather than passively listening to the instructor.2: Examples: Small group discussions, role-plays, reflective writing, searching for information, and creating a curriculum.3. Compare with BANKING CONCEPT OF LEARNING and TRANSMISSION MODEL OF EDUCATION. active listening1. Definition: “Attending to the speech, body language, facial expressions, and implied meaning of a person’s communications” (Collins & O’Brien, 2011, p. 7). adult basic skills1. Definition: “Basic skills are foundational proficiencies in mathematics, reading, writing, and language. Programs, such as Adult Basic Education (ABE), Adult Secondary Education, English for Speakers of Other Languages, and other state, federal and private programs, assist undereducated and/or disadvantaged adults in raising their basic proficiencies” (Florida Department of Education, n.d., para. 3). advance organizer1. Definition: “Short introductory text or graphic material presented to students prior to a learning experience that enables students to structure the knowledge, put it in perspective, and increase receptivity to new information” (Collins & O’Brien, 2011, p. 12). affective strategies1. Definition: Student behaviors to manage their emotions. A positive environment helps the student to learn.2. Compare with COGNITIVE STRATEGIES. assistive technology1. Definition: “Technology that can be used by people with a wide range of abilities and disabilities based on the principles of UNIVERSAL DESIGN. Users can interact with the technology in ways that work best for them. Accessible technolog...
Antiracism and Racism Glossary
1w ago
Antiracism and Racism Glossary
Antiracism and Racism            The following is an essential collection of terms related to antiracism and racism. More comprehensive glossaries on this topic are available from Center for Equity, Gender, and Leadership (2020), Diversity Advisory Council (n.d.), Georgetown University Library (2020), Institute for Democratic Renewal and Project Change Anti-Racism Institute (2019), Pokhrel et al., (2021), Race Forward (2015), Sue, Williams, & Owens (2021) and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation (n.d.). Complete references to these glossaries and often an online link to them are found in the reference section at the end of this glossary. allyAccording to Pokhrel et al. (2021, pp. 77–78):1. Definitions: (a) “A person who supports a group other than their own identities, such as gender, RACE, religion, and sex” (Berkner Boyt, 2020, para. 10); and (b) A person who acknowledges disadvantages and oppression of other groups and takes action to stand with them and oppose the oppression (Wenger, n.d., p. 164).2. Examples: (a) Speaking up on behalf of people of color (POC) during conversations when others make disparaging comments, MICROAGGRESSION behaviors, jokes, or stereotypical statements whether  POC are  present or not (Davis, 1989); (b) Participating in meetings hosted by POC that raise awareness about issues of identity (racial, sexual, etc.); (c) Displaying posters that advocate for social justice on the learning center walls; (d) Displaying a welcome poster on the learning center wall with the word “welcome” in languages spoken by members of the student body; (e) Asking questions of POC “like ‘what do I need to know,’ ‘how can I help,’ and ‘what can we do together?’” (Ludema & Johnson, 2020, Don’t be paternalistic section); (f) Taking time to read books and watch videos on racial topics (history, slavery, systemic racism, etc.)  and  avoid asking POC to explain complex racial issues to you; (g) Marching in a Pride Parade to advocate for an  annual audit of pay equity (Ludema & Johnson, 2020, Do take ally-like actions section); (h) Taking actions that create an environment so that POC speak for themselves (Ludema & Johnson, 2020, Don’t speak for others section); (i) Responding when the leader of the campus LBGTQ affinity group contacts you to offer support to the goals of the affinity group for Black employees; (j) Using authority as the Resident Hall Assistant to confront students on the dorm floor who are dressed up as border patrol and migrants at the border and stop the activity, and using this incident as opportunity to inform all residents that this activity is not appropriate or acceptable learning opportunity (k) South Asian woman marching at various Black Lives Matter protests while holding up a sign saying “South Asians for Black Lives;” and (l) attending campus and social activities hosted by POC.3. Compare with ANTIRACISM (verb), EQUALITY, EQUITY, and SOCIAL JUSTICE.antiracismAccording to Pokhrel et al. (2021, p. 78):1. Definition: “The work of actively opposing racism by advocating for changes in political, economic, and social life. Anti-racism tends to be an individualized approach, and set up in opposition to individual racist behaviors and impacts” (Race Forward, 2015, p. 25).2. Examples: (a) Report any acts of discrimination to the institution's Dean of Students or Title IX Officer; (b) Ensure the racial diversity of the professional staff and the student employees of the learning center equals or exceeds the diversity demographics of the student population; (c) Best practices in antiracist language and behavior is a part of all professional development and training sessions for staff and student employees of tutoring and small group study sessions.3. Compare with ALLY, RACISM, SPACE RACISM, and SOCIAL JUSTICE. assimilationistAccording to Pokhrel et al. ( 2021, p. 79):1. Definition: Describes the process that a dominant group makes invisible a smaller, powerless group defining characteristics and identity (Yoshino, 2013).2. Examples: (a) Focusing on Standard Written English in school may be considered an assimilationist pedagogy, as it requires racial and ethnic groups to change or hide their linguistic heritage; (b) reminding immigrant children how fortunate they are to have arrived in the United States; (c) not permitting reading in or using language from the country of origin during class sessions; and (d) not recognizing the common experience of confusion and stressful transition for the immigrant or marginalized U.S. citizens.3. Compare with INSTITUTIONAL RACISM, MICROAGGRESSION, and RACISM. check your privilegeAccording to Pokhrel et al. (2021, pp. 79–80):1. Definition: “When someone asks you to ‘CHECK YOUR PRIVILEGE,’ they are asking you to pause and consider how the advantages you’ve had in your life are contributing to your opinions and actions, and how the lack of disadvantages in certain areas is keeping you from fully understanding the struggles others are facing and in fact may be contributing to those struggles” (Oluo, 2019, p. 63).2. Examples: (a) A White person considering the advantages that being White affords them regarding assumptions about their creditworthiness, honesty, and trustworthiness, among others; (b) Advantages that accompany being the second generation in the family to attend or graduate from college; and (c) Having family members who can mentor a younger person as they navigate the challenges of life.3. Compare with PRIVILEGE. climateAccording to Pokhrel et al. (2021, p. 80):1. Definitions: (a) Perceptions and experiences by individual members of the organizational environment; and (b) influences how an individual feels valued, safe, fairly treated, and treated with dignity.2. Examples: (a) At a learning center, staff or student of color experience a CLIMATE of hostility and unwelcomeness toward them due to the attitudes and behaviors of its staff. For example, a staff member assumes that a student of color who comes to the front desk needs a tutor when the student is actually applying for a tutoring or study group job; (b) usually, on predominantly White institutions with few faculty, staff, and administrators who are people of color, the CLIMATE is “cold” or “chilly” to Latinx students who attend class or participate in predominantly White clubs; (c) When a Black student walks into a campus honor society meeting with all White students in attendance,  the White students stare at the Black student as though they are entering by mistake. The honor society president asks immediately for credentials to validate the Black student’s participation but does not ask other White applicants to validate their participation. The Black student begins to feel unwelcome, and, as a result, the events at the honor society create an atmosphere in which the Black student experiences STEREOTYPE THREAT; and (d) A Black adult male is stopped by the campus police while he is walking across the campus at night, which often happens to African, Black, Hispanic, Indigenous, and Latinx people. The Black male was wearing a dark pea coat and a kufi skull cap. The campus police demanded to know why he was on the campus. He replied that he just finished work after a long day as the Vice-Chancellor for Diversity Affairs and was walking home to have a late dinner with his family in his own neighborhood.3. Compare with IMPLICIT BI...
Assessment Glossary
1w ago
Assessment Glossary
Assessment            These glossary terms are primarily related to student and program assessment. Some related terms are located under the Program Management category. More comprehensive glossaries of terms can be found in the Greenwood Dictionary of Education (Collins & O’Brien, 2011) and the Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation (Newcomer, Hatry, & Wholey, 2015). affective domain1. Definition: “A part of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives for student attitudes, values, and emotional growth. The affective domain includes five basic categories: receiving, responding, valuing, organization, and characterization by a value” (Dembo, 1994. p. G-1).2. Compare with COGNITIVE DOMAIN and METACOGNITIVE DOMAIN. alternate assessment1. Definition: “Examination of student progress through direct observation of student performance and judgment of learning products through a collection of authentic sources such as behavior, student presentations, and work” (Collins & O’Brien, 2011, p. 18).2. Compare with ASSESSMENT, DIFFERENTIATED PLACEMENT, DIRECTED SELF-PLACEMENT, PLACEMENT, and PLACEMENT TESTING. assessment1. Definitions: (a) “Process of applying systematic formal and informal measures and techniques to ascertain students’ current competencies and abilities; (b) Process of determining students’ strengths and weaknesses in cognitive and affective areas for the purpose of generalized placement; (c) Act of assessing, or taking a measurement by counting, rating, or estimating the amount of skill, ability, or knowledge of some element of an individual or a program); (d) ASSESSMENT should be as objective as possible (value-free), as opposed to EVALUATION, which suggests that value has been added. Assessment does not assume, in advance, what is good, worthwhile, or desirable. In analogy to science, assessment is observation. Although objectivity is always relative, it is important to separate the measurement from the interpretation of its meaning” (Collins & O’Brien, 2011, p. 36); and (e) “While ‘ASSESSMENT’ means “measurement,” the term is increasingly used in the higher education context to refer to a systematic cycle of collecting and reviewing information about student learning. The complete cycle involves: clearly stating expected goals for student learning, offering learning experiences, measuring the extent to which students have achieved expected goals, and using the evidence collected to improve teaching and learning” (Office of the Provost, n.d., para. 1).2. Examples: College entrance examination scores, scores on pretests for all students enrolled in a course, and graduation rates for students in a particular academic degree program.3. Compare with ALTERNATE ASSESSMENT, CAUSATION and CORRELATION, DIFFERENTIATED PLACEMENT, DIRECT SELF-PLACEMENT, EVALUATION, PLACEMENT TESTING, PROGRAM GOAL, PROGRAM OBJECTIVE, RESEARCH, and SYSTEMIC SELF-STUDY. backwash1. Definition: Describing the positive or negative impact that an assessment of a specific skill has on whether that skill has been acquired.2. Examples: (a) Instructors organize their class learning activities directly to prepare for high-stakes tests that can impact funding for the school; and (b) Supplemental learning topics are ignored to permit more time for the instructor to teach to the test. baseline1. Definitions: (a) Natural occurrence of behavior before intervention; and (b) Data collected to establish a point of comparison between previous behavior and that which occurs after an intervention is introduced. behavioral change1. Definition: Difference in performance that is observable and documentable.2. Examples: Course dropout rate, final course grade, and persistence toward graduation following an intervention activity.3. Compare with ACADEMIC MENTORING, COURSE-BASED LEARNING ASSISTANCE, and TUTORING. causation and correlation1. Definitions: (a) CAUSATION occurs when one variable increases or decreases directly from another variable. This is difficult to establish with human subjects since other variables may have an influence. This is easier to establish under carefully monitored scientific studies that are replicated numerous times, and (b) CORRELATION suggests a high likelihood that two variables are associated. Studies may report the likelihood of this relationship by establishing the percentage of chance that some other variable might explain the results.2. Examples: (a) Carefully designed studies replicated many times established the CAUSATION of cigarette smoking to various medical conditions including lung cancer; and (b) Attending a student-led study group results in a CORRELATION of higher course grades.3. Compare with ASSESSMENT, EVALUATION, FORMATIVE EVALUATION, and RESEARCH. cognitive domain1. Definition: “A part of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Bloom divides the objectives in the cognitive domain into six categories: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation” (Dembo, 1994, p. G-2).2. Compare with AFFECTIVE DOMAIN, ASSESSMENT, and DIAGNOSIS. cohort1. Definitions: (a) Specific subpopulation or a subset of the entire student body studied over a period through the examination of their attitudes, behaviors, or scores on assessment instruments; and (b) Group of students who are a subset of the entire student body.2. Examples: entering first-year COHORT of students at a college or university; subpopulation of students such as student-athletes, fraternities and sororities, or students over the age of 25. college and career readiness1. Definitions: (a) Level of preparation at which a student possesses the content knowledge, strategies, skills, and techniques necessary to be successful in any of a range of postsecondary settings (Collins, 2007; Conley, 2012); and (b) COLLEGE READINESS and CAREER READINESS are relative terms because they are dependent upon a particular institution, specific degree program within that institution, and a particular instructor teaching a course within a degree program.2. Compare with COLLEGE-LEVEL, DEVELOPMENTAL, and DEVELOPMENTAL-LEVEL COURSE. criterion1. Definitions: (a) Measurable objective that describes the characteristics of acceptable performance; and (b) Specific standard by which performance is evaluated.2. Compare with PROGRAM GOAL, PROGRAM OBJECTIVE, MISSION STATEMENT, and VISION STATEMENT. developmental profile1. Definition: Description of an individual’s academic or cognitive competencies as measured by, for example, high school grades, standardized college entrance exams, interviews, and surveys. diagnosis1. Definitions: (a) Process of determining students’ specific strengths and weaknesses to create a prescription for treatment (Harris & Hodges, 1981); (b) Planning of instruction based on an evaluation ...
Copyright and Academic Integrity Glossary
1w ago
Copyright and Academic Integrity Glossary
Copyright and Academic Integrity            These terms apply to instructors, program managers, and students on how they handle curricula, media, and publications created by others and attribution to previously published works. These can be enormously complicated issues that may require consultation with institutional legal services to avoid violations and potential legal proceedings. Modern technology has made violations easier than in the past. More comprehensive glossaries on this topic are available in Intellectual Property in the New Technological Age: Volume II Copyrights, Trademarks, and State IP Protections (Menell, Lemley, & Merges, 2019) and The People’s Law Dictionary (Hill & Hill, 2002). Two terms not added to this glossary are derivative work and fair use. Those two terms were left out since they have been improperly used to justify the current situation of flagrant copyright violations by some in the higher education profession. See Hill and Hill (2002) and Menell et al. (2019) for their definitions. attribution of intellectual property1. Definitions: (a) Giving credit to the creator of something. However, ATTRIBUTION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY does not absolve the person of potential COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT which can lead to financial damage awards and charges of PLAGARISM. ATTRIBUTION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY is required when using material covered by one or more of the six types of CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSES (Creative Commons, 2019; Hill and Hill, 2002); and (b) Appearing to be similar, a citation is a formal way to provide detailed information of where the quotation or idea could be found.2. Examples: Articles, books, and images.3. Compare with COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT, CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSES, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY USE COPYRIGHT, LITERARY PROPERTY USE COPYRIGHT, and PLAGIARISM.  copyright1. Definitions: (a) “The exclusive right of the author or creator of a literary or artistic property (such as a book, movie, or musical composition) to print, copy, sell, license, distribute, transform to another medium, translate, record or perform or otherwise use (or not use) and to give it to another by will. As soon as a work is created and is in a tangible form (such as writing or taping), the work automatically has federal COPYRIGHT protection. COPYRIGHT covers the following: literary, musical, and dramatic works, periodicals, maps, works of art (including models), art reproductions, sculptural works, technical drawings, photographs, prints (including labels), movies, and other audiovisual works, computer programs, compilations of works and derivative works, and architectural drawings. Not subject to COPYRIGHT are short phrases, titles, extemporaneous speeches or live unrecorded performances, common information, government publications, mere ideas, and seditious, obscene, libelous, and fraudulent work. For any work created from 1978 to date, a COPYRIGHT is good for the author's life, plus 50 years, with a few exceptions such as work for hire which is owned by the one commissioning the work for a period of 75 years from publication. After that, it falls into the PUBLIC DOMAIN” (Hill & Hill, 2002, pp. 114–115); and (b) COPYRIGHT violations are inconsistent with ETHICAL STANDARDS for the profession.2. Compare with COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT, CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSES, ETHICAL STANDARDS, INADVERTENT USE OF COPYRIGHTED MATERIALS, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY USE COPYRIGHT, LITERACY PROPERTY USE COPYRIGHT, AND PUBLIC DOMAIN. copyright infringement1. Definitions: (a) “…someone takes work that is subject to COPYRIGHT law and deprives its lawful owner of (actual or potential) benefits by distributing it. COPYRIGHT law was enacted to protect the legal rights of COPYRIGHT holders to benefit financially from their work” (Fishman, 2009, p. 4); (b) “Whereas attribution of intellectual property can negate the act of PLAGIARISM, it does not mitigate COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT which can occur whether or not the author of a work has been properly identified. Thus, even without addressing the question of material benefits, it is clear that COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT is not co-identical with PLAGIARISM” (Fishman, 2009, p. 4); and (c) “Even though the infringement may be accidental (an inventor thinks he p. or she is the first to develop the widget although someone else has a patent), the party infringing is responsible for paying the original patent or COPYRIGHT owner substantial damages, which can be the normal royalty or as much as the infringers' accumulated gross profits” (Hill & Hill, 2002, 114–115).2. Compare with COPYRIGHT, CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSES, INADVERTENT USE OF COPYRIGHTED MATERIALS, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY USE COPYRIGHT, and LITERARY PROPERTY USE COPYRIGHT. Creative Commons licenses1. Definition: “Developed by a United States non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. Based upon the general principles of COPYRIGHT but not designed to replace them, they created six COPYRIGHT licenses for creators to communicate which rights they reserve and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. The six license types are: (a) Attribution - others permitted to distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation; (b) Attribution sharalike - others permitted to remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms; (c) Attribution-noderivations - others permitted to reuse the work for any purpose, including commercially; however, it cannot be shared with others in adapted form, and credit must be provided to you; (d) Attribution-noncommercial - others permitted to remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms; (e) Attribution-noncommercial-sharealike - permits others to remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms; and (f) Attribution-noncommercial-noderivation - only permits others to download your works and share them with others as long as they credit you, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially” (Creative Commons, 2019, para. 1—6).2. Compare with COPYRIGHT, COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT, INADVERTENT USE OF COPYRIGHTED MATERIALS, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY USE COPYRIGHT, LITERARY PROPERTY USE COPYRIGHT, OPEN ACCESS, OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE, and PUBLIC DOMAIN. ethical standards1. Definitions: (a) Criteria that provide requirements and guidelines for behaving in a manner that is fair to all individuals; (b) In assessment, criteria ensuring that data are collected, recorded, and reported with honesty and integrity; and (c) (In writing and use of COPYRIGHTED materials), the professional uses other people’s created materials in an appropriate fashion. inadvertent use of copyrighted material1. Definitions: (a) Common statement made by administrators who discover someone reporting to them in the chain of command has comm...
Pedagogies for Teaching and Learning Glossary
1w ago
Pedagogies for Teaching and Learning Glossary
Pedagogies for Teaching and Learning            Many of these are comprehensive pedagogies for teaching and learning. Other glossary terms are learning approaches that widen access to the learning environment. A few of these are old pedagogies that inhibit student learning and are generally avoided in current contexts. Glossary terms from other categories could also be useful, especially those in the Antiracism and Racism, Transitional Courses and Programs, and Teaching and Learning Process categories. The following books could be helpful: Applying Educational Research: How to Read, Do, and Use Research to Solve Problems of Practice (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2014) and School-Centered Interventions: Evidence-Based Strategies for Social, Emotional, and Academic Success (Simon, 2015).  accommodation1. Definitions: (a) “An adjustment to make a workstation, job, program, facility, or resource accessible to a person with a disability” (DO-IT Center, 2019, para. 4); and (b) Piaget’s term for the modification or reorganization of existing cognitive structures (schema) to deal with environmental demands” (Dembo, 1994, G-1).2. Compare with (DIS)ABILITY, NEURODIVERSITY. banking concept of learning1. Definition: “Term used by Paulo Freire to describe and critique the traditional education system. The name refers to the metaphor of students as containers into which educators must put knowledge for future use. Freire argued that this model reinforces students' lack of critical thinking and knowledge ownership that reinforces oppression. This concept contrasts with Freire's understanding of knowledge as the result of a human, creative process” (Banking model of education, 2014, April 14, para. 1; Freire, 1970).2. Compare with ACTIVE LEARNING and TRANSMISSION MODEL OF EDUCATION. critical literacy1. Definitions: (a) Reading to actively analyze texts and using strategies for what proponents describe as uncovering underlying messages (Lankshear & McLaren, 1993); and (b) “Active reading of texts in a manner that promotes a deeper understanding of socially constructed concepts such as power, inequality, and injustice” (International Literacy Association, n.d., Section C, para. 26).2. Compare with LITERACY and SOCIAL JUSTICE. critical pedagogy1. Definition: Approach to teaching and learning that encourages learners to reflect critically on issues of power and oppression in their society and on what might be done to change the current situation (Shor, 1992). cultural literacy1. Definitions: (a) Awareness of facts, themes, ideas, and other information comprising the heritage of a given nation, culture, or ethnic group; and (b) The cumulative database of cultural knowledge that a reader brings to a reading task and is influenced by when questioning, evaluating, and contextualizing the material. cultural sensitivity1. Definitions: (a) Demonstration of respect for the cultural background of all individuals; and (b) Adapting the learning environment to different learning preferences influenced by cultural background. culturally relevant pedagogy1. Definitions: (a) Pedagogy that emerged in the 1990s grounded in instructors’ demonstrated CULTURAL COMPETENCE. This is a skill at teaching in a cross-cultural or multicultural setting. Such pedagogy enables students to make meaning in their own cultural context. While the term has been used specifically for the instruction of African American students in the United States, the effectiveness of such instruction has been demonstrated for students of all racial and ethnic backgrounds (Adams et al., 2017; Ladson-Billings, 1995); and (b) Sometimes used interchangeably with CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE PEDAGOGY.2. Compare with CRITICAL PEDAGOGY, CRITICAL LITERACY, CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE PEDAGOGY, CULTURALLY SUSTAINING PEDAGOGY, INCLUSION, MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION, and SOCIAL JUSTICE. culturally responsive pedagogy1. Definitions: (a) A student-centered approach to teaching that emerged in the 1980s in which students’ unique cultural strengths are identified and nurtured to promote student achievement and a sense of well-being about their cultural place in the world (Gay, 2018; Hammond, 2015; Naraian, 2017; and Pirbabal-Illch et al., 2017). CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE PEDAGOGY has three functional dimensions: institutional, personal, and instructional; (b) Students grapple with real-world problems they consider worth solving. Issues of SOCIAL JUSTICE and equality are integrated into the curriculum. The cultures of diverse and underrepresented students are strengths brought into the classroom to provide context for applicability of the curriculum to the personal lives of the students; and (c) Four critical components to CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE PEDAGOGY are respected for the diversity of the students, engagement with the motivation of all students, creation of a safe, inclusive, and respectful learning environment, and employment of teaching practices that cross disciplines and cultures, and finally, promotion of justice and equity in the wider society (Wlodkowski & Ginsberg, 1995).2. Example: Math education can analyze power and privilege relationships through social and economic structures.3. Compare with CRITICAL PEDAGOGY, CRITICAL LITERACY, CULTURALLY RELEVANT PEDAGOGY, CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE PEDAGOGY, CULTURALLY SUSTAINING PEDAGOGY, INCLUSION, INCLUSIVE PEDAGOGY, MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION, and SOCIAL JUSTICE. culturally sustaining pedagogy1. Definitions: (a) A pedagogy that challenges educators to promote, celebrate, and even critique the multiple and shifting ways that students engage with culture (Coulter & Jimenez-Silva, 2017; Paris et al., 2017); and (b) A pedagogy developed in the second decade of the 21st Century to succeed CULTURALLY RELEVANT/RESPONSIVE PEDAGOGY that emerged in the 1990s.2. Compare with CRITICAL PEDAGOGY, CRITICAL LITERACY, CULTURALLY RELEVANT PEDAGOGY, CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE PEDAGOGY, INCLUSION, INCLUSIVE PEDAGOGY, MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION, and SOCIAL JUSTICE. direct instruction1. Definitions: (a) An instructional model wherein the instructor facilitates learning through the presentation of content material by lecturing, explaining, demonstrating, and managing student activities; (b) “An instructional model developed in the 1960s for special education and later adopted in general education” (International Literacy Association, n.d., Section D, para. 13); and (c) “A model based on behavior modification principles, learning activities are sequenced and managed by the instructor to develop progressively more complex skills and knowledge” (Collins & O’Brien, 2011, p. 142).2. Compare with FACILITATORS and STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING. flipped classroom1. Definition: “Instructional strategy and a type of blended learning that reverses the traditional learning environment by delivering instructional content outside the classroom and often online. It moves activities, including those that may have traditionally been considered homework, into the...
Program Management Glossary
1w ago
Program Management Glossary
Program Management            This category of glossary terms relates most directly to the operation of administrative offices, programs, and in some cases classroom instruction. Additional terms related to program management are contained in the Assessment category. More comprehensive glossaries of terms can be found in the Greenwood Dictionary of Education (Collins & O’Brien, 2011) and the Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation (Newcomer, Hatry, & Wholey, 2015).academic credential1. Definition: Certificate stating that instructors or staff members have attended a properly accredited postsecondary institution and completed a curriculum in the academic discipline they are instructing or supervising. academic rank1. Definition: Category of an institution’s classification system of professional personnel 2. Examples: Academic professional and administrative employee, assistant/associate/full professor, assistant/senior lecturer, docent, instructor, and teaching specialist. accreditation1. Definition: “A voluntary process conducted by peers through nongovernmental agencies to improve educational quality and ensure the public that programs and services meet established standards. In higher education, accreditation is divided into institutional and specialized. Although both are designed to assure minimum levels of quality, the former focuses on the institution as a whole while the latter focuses on specialty professional or preprofessional programs (such as law, business, psychology, or education) or services such as counseling centers within the institution” (Council for the Advancement of Standards, 2019, para. 1). adjunct facultySee PART-TIME FACULTY. ancillary facilities1. Definition: Postsecondary programs, services, and functions provided to support the educational function of the institution.2. Examples: COURSE-BASED LEARNING ASSISTANCE, LEARNING ASSISTANCE CENTERS, and TUTORING. certification1. Definition: “Official recognition by a governmental or professional body attesting that an individual practitioner demonstrates knowledge and can apply learned skills to meet established standards or criteria. Criteria most often include formal academic preparation in prescribed content areas and a period of supervised practice with successful completion of a standardized test of the practitioner’s knowledge” (Council for the Advancement of Standards, 2020, para. 15). compliance1. Definitions: (a) The extent to which a particular ASSESSMENT guideline is followed; and (b) The degree to which a program is judged to meet an ASSESSMENT standard.2. Example: Legal compliance with Title IX or other federal and state mandates. contingent faculty1. Definition: Includes both PART- and FULL-TIME FACULTY who do not have continuing employment contract protection. This portion of the teaching component has increased in recent years since it gives the institution’s administrators flexibility to lay off or add additional personnel depending on budget pressures and new program offerings.2. Compare with ADJUNCT, FULL-TIME FACULTY, INSTRUCTOR, PART-TIME FACULTY, and TENURE/TENURE-TRACK FACULTY. cost-effectiveness1. Definition: Condition achieved when the lowest-cost option is utilized for achieving the greatest benefit or gain (Collins & O’Brien, 2011). emergency crisis management procedures1. Definition: Step-by-step directions for dealing with extraordinary events.2. Examples: students in crisis, health emergencies, active shooter on campus, and student discipline. ethical standards1. Definitions: (a) Criteria that provide requirements and guidelines for behaving in a manner that is fair to all individuals; (b) In assessment, criteria ensuring that data are collected, recorded, and reported with honesty and integrity; and (c) (In writing and use of COPYRIGHTED materials), the professional uses other people’s created materials in an appropriate fashion. fair employment practices1. Definition: Adherence to laws prohibiting employment discrimination because of age, color, creed, cultural heritage, disability, ethnicity, gender identification, nationality, political affiliation, religious affiliation, sex, sexual identity, or social, economic, marital, or veteran status. Federal Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)1. Definition: Federal ruling that places extensive procedures and restrictions on the disclosure of information regarding an individual without obtaining that individual’s permission. This federal legislation protects student records pertaining to enrollment, grades, and any services received at a postsecondary institution. full-time faculty1. Definition: Varying degrees of autonomy in the courses they teach and can have vastly different course loads from one another due to their individual course releases to engage in public service and research time. The faculty members may receive a range of privileges for the position from the institution. These educators may or may not have continuing employment contract protection.2. Compare with CONTINGENT FACULTY, INSTRUCTOR, PART-TIME FACULTY, and TENURE/TENURE-TRACK FACULTY.in-service education (sometimes called on-the-job training)1. Definition: Job-related instruction and educational experiences made available to employees by the institution to improve the knowledge and skills of employees, usually offered during normal working hours (Collins & O’Brien, 2011). instructor1. Definitions: (a) Someone who performs a teaching function in any setting; and (b) Faculty designation of untenured rank or staff instructors without rank of any kind.2. Examples: Lecturer, INSTRUCTOR, staff member, and assistant professor.3. Compare with FULL-TIME FACULTY and PART-TIME FACULTY. job functions1. Definition: Required skills or duties to perform a job. joint faculty appointments1. Definitions: (a) Assignment of instructors to duties in more than one area or unit of the institution, such as teaching college-level and developmental-level courses; and (b) Teaching courses in two or more different academic departments. liability exposure1. Definition: “Breadth of damages for which an institution can be held legally responsible” (Hill & Hill, 2002, pp. 248–249). Depending upon the situation, PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY COVERAGE through insurance may or may not protect the individual or institution charged with the incident.2. Compare with PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY COVERAGE. merit increases
Student-to-Student Learning Glossary
6d ago
Student-to-Student Learning Glossary
Student-to-Student Learning            Organized or informal approaches may occur during class sessions or afterward. If the activity is embedded within the course session, these could also be included in the Transitional Courses Programs category. An annotated bibliography of more than 1,900 publications is available of the major national and international peer cooperative learning programs described in this glossary (Arendale, 2021).Accelerated Learning Groups (ALGs)1. Definition: “ACCELERATED LEARNING GROUPS (ALGs) were developed at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles in the early 1990s by Dr. Sydney Stansbury. ALGs were designed to meet the needs of students who had significant skill or knowledge deficiencies that often inhibited their effective use of other peer collaborative learning programs such as SI. ALGs combine peer-led small group learning activities, assessment, frequent feedback by a learning skills specialist, and individual education plan (IEP) development for each student. ALG students are concurrently enrolled in a challenging entry-level course while they develop the necessary skills and knowledge prescribed by the IEP. The ALG students are placed into a triad with another student with similar IEP objectives and a peer leader who works intensely with the students under the supervision of a learning skills specialist. Participation in ALGs continues in the academic term until the learning skills specialist deems it appropriate to transition into another peer development program such as Supplemental Instruction or individual tutoring. The developer of the ALG model, Sydney Stansbury, can be contacted via email at sydbury@yahoo.com. This peer learning model is one example of COURSE BASED LEARNING ASSISTANCE” (Arendale, 2021, p. 14).2. Compare with COURSE-BASED LEARNING ASSISTANCE, COOPERATIVE LEARNING, and DEVELOPMENTAL-LEVEL COURSE. adjunct instructional programs (AIP)See COURSE-BASED LEARNING ASSISTANCE (CLA). collaborative learning1. Definition: Students working and learning from one another. These activities may be planned or unplanned. They may be under the supervision of an instructor or other students. These activities may occur within a classroom or in other locations. The goal is the development of knowledge and skill mastery.2. Compare with COOPERATIVE LEARNING, COURSE-BASED LEARNING ASSISTANCE, PEER EDUCATION, and STUDENTS AS PARTNERS. cooperative learning1. Definition: COLLABORATIVE LEARNING is a broad category of student activities in which learners work with each other to complete a task. The six critical features of COOPERATIVE LEARNING that differentiate it in the comparison include (a) positive interdependence among group participants; (b) individual accountability for involvement; (c) appropriate rationale and task purpose for the group; (d) structured student interactions with designated activities rather than free-form discussion; (e) facilitation by an instructor or expert peer; and (f) attention to the development of social skills such as interpersonal communications and leadership development (Johnson et al.,1998).2. Compare with COLLABORATIVE LEARNING, COURSE-BASED LEARNING ASSISTANCE, PEER EDUCATION, and STUDENTS AS PARTNERS. course-based learning assistance (CLA)1. Definitions: (a) Forms of group cooperative learning that accompany a specific course to serve as a supplement for that course. There are a variety of CLA approaches. These activities may occur outside of class or may be embedded within the course. Student participation may be voluntary or mandatory. Some CLA programs award academic credit for student participation; and (b) CLA can also be less formal and take the form of study cluster groups and group problem-solving sessions (Arendale, 2005).2. Examples: ACCELERATED LEARNING MODEL, EMERGING SCHOLARS PROGRAM (UC- Berkeley Model), PEER-LED TEAM LEARNING (CUNY Model), STRUCTURED LEARNING ASSISTANCE (Ferris State University Model), SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTION-PASS=PAL (UMKC Model), and VIDEO-BASED SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTION (UMKC Model).3. Compare with COOPERATIVE LEARNING, COLLABORATIVE LEARNING, PEER EDUCATION, and STUDENTS AS PARTNERS. embedded academic support1. Definition: Academic assistance managed by a course instructor and operating in the course either during a class session or an online lesson. A student tutor, study group leader, or professional staff member could provide the help. This assistance could involve all students in the class or just one or a few to provide DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION.2. Compare with ACCELERATION THROUGH CURRICULAR REDESIGN, ACCELERATION THROUGH MAINSTREAMING, DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION, EMBEDDED PEER EDUCATOR, and PEER EDUCATION. Embedded Peer Educator Model (EPE)1. Definition: (a) a college student PARAPROFESSIONAL who has received training for their roles to help other students learn the difficult course material; and (b) The EMBEDDED PEER EDUCATOR MODEL (EPE) plays various roles, including MENTORING, FACILITATING, and guiding students. The EPEs can assist the course instructor during the class sessions within careful boundaries that exclude grading. EPEs can provide individual TUTORING but most often work in small or large groups.  A key feature of EPE Model is that the EPE and the course faculty members work as a team to plan class activities in which all students are participants. This is different from most TUTORING and out-of-class approaches such as SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTION which do not require much, if any, involvement by the course faculty member.2. Example: EPE attends the course lecture sessions and assists the students in learning.3. Compare with EMBEDDED ACADEMIC SUPPORT, FACILITATOR, PEER EDUCATOR, and TUTOR. Emerging Scholars Program (ESP)1. Definition: “ Developed by Uri Treisman in 1977, this multi-ethnic honors-level program originated as the Mathematics Workshop of the Professional Development Program at the University of California at Berkeley (Triesman, 1985). It is widely disseminated across the United States as a part of first-year courses in academic departments (Examples: mathematics, physics, and chemistry) and as an academic workshop component of numerous Minority Engineering Programs. In studies of ESP in research universities—such as the University of Texas at Austin, the University of Wisconsin at Madison, the University of Kentucky (Lexington), Rutgers University, and others—not only do ESP participants score well above the general class average, but two-thirds or more regularly earn an A or B. Common activities include structured workshops of varying difficulty developed in collaboration with the course instructor. The ESP facilitator is often a graduate student due to the knowledge needed. Close coordination between ESP program and course instructor. Other components include building a cohort community of first-year students that are academically oriented and a source of peer support; providing the cohort with an extensive orientation to the college and with ongoing academic advising; advocating the interests of the cohort and monitoring their academic progress and adjustment to the environment; providing the cohort with ongoing supplemen...
Transitional Courses and Programs Glossary
6d ago
Transitional Courses and Programs Glossary
Transitional Courses and ProgramsThis category describes the wide array of approaches for meeting the academic and social needs of students as they make the transition from secondary to postsecondary education. Two new terms provide an umbrella for these approaches: transitional courses and transitional programs. Some approaches have been recently created to replace remedial-level and developmental-level courses, which are out of favor with many policymakers and college administrators.  academic preparatory academy1. Definition: An equivalent high school education program that contains core academic content, including a college preparatory curriculum. This approach is now more prevalent in the United Kingdom. Previously, these academies operated in the United States before the creation or junior colleges or community colleges.2. Compare with ACCESS EDUCATION and DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION. accelerated developmental-level course1. Definition: Condensing academic content to be completed in less than a traditional academic term. However, the total time spent to complete the course usually includes extra instructional/contact hours.2. Compare with ACCELERATION THROUGH CURRICULAR REDESIGN, ACCELERATION, COMPRESSED DEVELOPMENTAL-LEVEL COURSE, CO-REQUISITE PAIRED COURSE, and GUIDED PATHWAYS. acceleration1. Definitions: (a) “Reorganization of instruction and curricula in ways that facilitate the completion of educational requirements in an expedited manner” (Edgecombe, 2011, p. 4). Other terms used to describe this approach include intensive, compressed, condensed, and time-shortened; and (b) Multiple courses in an academic sequence may be completed within the same academic term.2. Compare with ACCELERATION THROUGH CURRICULAR REDESIGN, ACCELERATION THROUGH MAINSTREAMING, COMPRESSED DEVELOPMENTAL-LEVEL COURSE, EMBEDDED ACADEMIC SUPPORT, GUIDED PATHWAYS, and MODULAR LEARNING. acceleration through curricular redesign1. Definitions: (a) “Reduction of time to complete developmental-level course requirements by decreasing the required courses. Course reductions are accomplished through the elimination of redundant content and modification of the remaining curriculum to meet learning objectives. For example, the curricula of multiple developmental-level courses may be consolidated into a single-term course. Often, these new courses require additional instructional contact hours and therefore are offered more credit than their legacy courses. However, this is not common for all redesigned courses; and (b) Elimination of developmental-level courses and incorporation into college-level courses of basic skills development” (Edgecombe, 2011, p. 14).2. Compare with ACCELERATION, ACCELERATION THROUGH MAINSTREAMING, COMPRESSED DEVELOPMENTAL-LEVEL COURSE, EMBEDDED ACADEMIC SUPPORT, GUIDED PATHWAYS, and MODULAR LEARNING. acceleration through mainstreaming1. Definitions: (a) Placement into college-level courses of students who are close to required placement scores on the assumption that these students are similar or indistinguishable from their college-ready peers (Calcagno & Long, 2008); (b) This curricular approach is also called an ACCELERATED LEARNING PROGRAM; (c) Admission of students into college-level courses despite ASSESSMENT scores placing them in DEVELOPMENTAL-LEVEL COURSES while providing additional assistance through a required CO-REQUISITE COURSE, INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY lab sessions, or other learning supports (Edgecombe, 2011); and (d) Provision to all of the beneficial academic support embedded into class sessions through INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY modules, in-class tutors, and out-of-class resources such as COURSE-BASED LEARNING ASSISTANCE, LEARNING ASSISTANCE, LEARNING ASSISTANCE CENTER, DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION PROGRAM, REMEDIAL EDUCATION PROGRAM, LEARNING ASSISTANCE PROGRAM, or other means. 2. Compare with BASIC ACADEMIC SKILLS. access education1. Definitions: (a) A program of study for STUDENTS HISTORICALLY UNDERREPRESENTED to prepare for postsecondary admission; and (b) A term used to describe programs in Europe and other locations that are comparable to U.S. DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION.2. Compare with ACADEMIC PREPARATORY ACADEMY and DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION. bridge program1. Definitions: (a) “Programs designed to facilitate the transition from adult basic education, programs to postsecondary educational institutions. Through participation in transition programs, learners build academic literacy skills, social capital, and acquire strategies for success in college and vocational training” (Collins & O’Brien, 2011, p. 53); Support students through multiple transition points throughout secondary and postsecondary education. Often these programs serve students who may be first-generation college students, historically-underrepresented, economically-disadvantaged, and lacking social capital commonly held by privileged students.2. Examples: TRIO programs such as Upward Bound, Student Support Services, and McNair Scholars program. 3. Compare with FIRST-YEAR COLLEGE PROGRAM, TRANSITION PROGRAM, and TRIO. college access1. Definition: Coordinated gateway path of GATEWAY COURSES to prepare students for postsecondary institutions that are well aligned with student's interests and capabilities (Page & Scott-Clayton, 2015) compensatory education1. Definitions: (a) Educational activities that amend a previous state of discrimination due to their demographic profile such as being economically disadvantaged; and (b) Activities and services provided through civil rights legislation for students who are eligible for participation due to past discrimination because of their ethnic, social, or economic group.2. Example: TRIO programs such as Upward Bound, Student Support Services, and McNair Scholars Program.3. Compare with DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION, DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION PROGRAM, DISABILITY SERVICES, REMEDIAL EDUCATION, and REMEDIAL EDUCATION PROGRAM. compressed developmental-level course (or compressed skills instruction)1. Definitions: (a) “Combination of multiple, sequential DEVELOPMENTAL-LEVEL COURSES in one academic term instead of two or more. Typically, the content of a single course is compressed into a seven- or eight-week segment, followed immediately by the next course in the sequence, also taught in a compressed format. Notably, students register for at least two sequential courses at the start of the term to normalize enrollment in the subsequent course. Although the course length is shortened, the instructional contact hours are the same as in a traditional 16-week course. Therefore, depending on scheduling, class periods tend to be longer and require instructors to modify lesson plans. Students receive grades for each compressed course. If students do not pass the first course, they are not permitted to move on to the second” (Edgecombe, 2011, p. 8); and (b) COMPRESSED COURSES refers to most any academic course that lasts less than the standard academic term (semester or quarter) and often lasts six to eight weeks in length.2, Compare with ACCELERATION, ACCELERATION THROUGH CURRICUL...
Less Acceptable Terms for Students Glossary
6d ago
Less Acceptable Terms for Students Glossary
Less Acceptable Terms for Students These terms have been used to describe students but are now designated as “less acceptable” since they are binary and factually inaccurate. In the future, these terms may be designated as unacceptable for use. A few glossary terms are included that help explain why the other terms were designated as less acceptable. The use of many of these words was explored in Terms of Endearment: Words that Help Define and Guide Developmental Education (Arendale, 2005) and Words Make a Difference: The Influence of Language on Public Perception (Arendale, 2007). Electronic links to both articles are available in the reference section at the end of the glossary. Before using a term to describe a group of students who share a characteristic, ask yourself if you would use the same term when speaking directly with a single student from this group. An extreme example is, “Steve, your problem is that you are learning disabled.” Instead, the conversation could begin, “Steve, let’s have a conversation about some of the different ways you learn.” Steve has already been living with his challenges, probably tested numerous times, and has heard the label of his academic capability. He probably would like to problem-solve his situation with a caring and knowledgeable professional. A preferred term could be learning differences. This example is not intended to judge the professional. Instead, it examines the conversation from the student’s perspective. That perspective is their truth and reality.  The following provides a rationale for not using binary language to label students as developmental:The relative need and usefulness of learning assistance for an individual student depend on the overall academic rigor of the institution, the subject matter studied, or even how one faculty member teaches a particular course compared with another from the same academic department. Therefore, the same individual could be a major consumer of learning assistance at one institution and not at another or even in one academic department and not another in the same institution. The need for learning assistance services is not a characteristic or universal defining attribute of the student; it depends on the conditions and expectations of the specific learning environment for a particular course. All college students are on a continuum between novice and master learner. Learning assistance serves students located along this continuum through a wide range of activities and services. The same student is often located at different places on multiple continuum lines simultaneously, one for each academic context and skill area (Arendale, 2010, p. 2). academically underprepared student1. Definition: A less acceptable term for a student who is projected to have academic difficulty in a particular college-level course. APA (2020) advises positioning the person first and utilizing non-stigmatizing language when describing them. The term is BINARY because it labels the student in one overall category or the other. The term is inaccurate because students have varying English, mathematics, and reading skills. The underprepared area should be clearly stated. Few students are underprepared in all academic content areas and skills.2. Examples: Steve is academically underprepared for success in a college-level mathematics course while he is prepared for other classes.3. Compare with BINARY CLASSIFICATION OF PEOPLE, DEFICIT LANGUAGE, DEVELOPMENTAL STUDENT, REMEDIAL STUDENT, STEREOTYPE THREAT, and STIGMA. binary classification of people1. Definition: Categorizing individuals into one discrete group or another. Such division of people is seldom accurate due to their DIVERSITY and can create implicit discrimination and perceptions of deficits of one group.2. Examples: ACADEMICALLY UNDERPREPARED STUDENT, DEVELOPMENTAL STUDENT, HIGH-RISK STUDENT, MINORITY STUDENT, REMEDIAL STUDENT, and SPECIAL POPULATION.3. Compare with DEFICIT LANGUAGE, STEREOTYPE THREAT, and STIGMA. deficit language1. Definitions: (a) Description of the academic capabilities of students that focuses on their incompetence (such as lack of fluency in English); status (such as first-generation or low-income); or cultural background (such as immigration status) rather than asset-based language that identifies their strengths; (b) Language that can be interpreted as affixing responsibility on students for their failure to achieve at the same level as advantaged and privileged students; and (c) A less acceptable term that can disparage individuals in a social group in comparison to others by implying their membership condition extends to all areas of their academic capabilities.2. Examples: ACADEMICALLY UNDERPREPARED STUDENT, DEVELOPMENTAL STUDENT, DIVERSE STUDENT, HIGH-RISK STUDENT, MAJORITY/MINORITY STUDENT, REMEDIAL STUDENT, SPECIAL POPULATION, and PERSON/STUDENT OF COLOR. developmental student1. Definition: A less acceptable term for a student enrolled in a developmental-level course. APA (2020) advises positioning the person first and utilizing non-stigmatizing language when describing people. The term is BINARY because it labels the student in one overall category in comparison to the other. The term is inaccurate because students have varying levels of skill in English, mathematics, and reading.2. Compare with ACADEMICALLY UNDERPREPARED STUDENT, BINARY CLASSIFICATION OF PEOPLE, DEFICIT LANGUAGE, DIVERSE STUDENT, HIGH-RISK STUDENT, REMEDIAL STUDENT, SPECIAL POPULATION, STEREOTYPE THREAT, and STIGMA. diverse student1. Definition: A less acceptable term for a student based on the definition for DIVERSITY which states that all students are diverse in some way. It is a BINARY term because it divides all people into either DIVERSE or not DIVERSE. In common vernacular, it has too frequently been used as a code for identifying another person as being from a different culture or RACE other than their own.2. The glossary term diversity is defined as identifying differences in demographics and identities that all people possess. Based on this definition, we are all DIVERSE from one another. People are an amazing collection of different demographics and multiple identities aligned or in conflict with one another. All of this creates uniqueness for each one of us. Therefore, the term DIVERSE STUDENTS was deemed less acceptable. In common vernacular, White speakers have too frequently used DIVERSE as a code for identifying people as being from a culture or race other than their own.3. Compare with BINARY CLASSIFICATION OF PEOPLE, DEFICIT LANGUAGE, DIVERSITY, MAJORITY/MINORITY STUDENT, NEURODIVERSITY, STEREOTYPE THREAT, and STIGMA. high-risk student (sometimes called the “at-risk” student)1. Definition: A less acceptable term for a student who is projected to have academic difficulty in one or more college-level courses. APA (2020) advises positioning the person first and utilizing non-stigmatizing language when describing people. The term is binary because it labels the student in one overall category or the other. The term is inaccurate since students have varying levels of skill in English, mathematics, and reading. The underprepared area should be clearly identified.2. Example: Stev...
Thank You and Acknowledgement to the Glossary Contributors
6d ago
Thank You and Acknowledgement to the Glossary Contributors
Hello, this is David Arendale. Thank you for listening to the essential glossary for increasing postsecondary student success: administrators, faculty, staff, and policymakers. It was a privilege to serve as editor of this third edition of the glossary. The names of the team that produced this reinvented work are provided a little later in this brief podcast episode. If you would like a print copy of the glossary along with the extensive references that were cited throughout the glossary and this podcast, please visit the web page for the College Reading and Learning Association. It is located under the publications menu tab. Then, click on CRLA Resources. You can also search for the glossary by typing that work into the search box located in the upper right hand corner of the web page. Just a brief overview of how we created this audio podcast. Aria was the chief narrator of all podcast episodes. She is an AI synthetic voice provided by the Natural Reader Corporation. The audio was produced by the commercial version of the software that requires an annual license fee. Aria was selected from more than sixty choices. The Natural Reader text to voice system is the only one guaranteed to produce narration that can be played at no additional cost on podcasts, YouTube videos, commercial radio and television, and more. While there is an explosion of AI generated video and audio choices now, read carefully the fine print on where that content can be shared. Most is for personal consumption.  The podcast is available through many channels such as Google, Apple, Spotify, and many others. The host site for the podcast is a company named transistor dot FM. The web page for our podcast is located at successglossary dot transistor dot FM. A feature I like about this company is that I can host many different podcasts at this one web site. However, it does require an annuial license fee. Just a thought for teachers among our listeners. If you had a license with this company, you could host a different podcast for every student in your classes. I plan to offer most podcasts focused on specific academic topics with this company. One more note about the rapidly changing features of software related to audio and video production. If a person has a license for the Commercial version of Natural Reader, a person can clone their voice. After reading for a few minutes, the computer software creates a synthetic version of a person’s voice that is very accurate. A few weeks ago, I cloned my voice. That is what you are listening to on this episode. I am getting over a really bad head cold and my speaking voice is not the best. So, I decided to use my cloned voice. Those that know me can give me feedback about whether this episode sounds like me. Those of you that are old enough may remember th old advertisement, is it real of is it Memorex? We finish this podcast episode with providing thanks to the educators who created th glossary. We owe much to the dedication and expertise of the authors, editors, and external review teams of the first two editions of this glossary (Arendale et al., 2007; Rubin, 1991). This new collective work is the result of numerous revisions to make it current and useful to the professional field. Credit for improvements in this version of the glossary goes to the external review team of respected professionals in the field of learning assistance and developmental education. No attempt has been made to differentiate the authors of new terms, contributors of new terms written by others, and reviewers of this glossary who made recommendations for revisions. Some of them were involved in multiple roles. This team includes the College Reading and Learning Association Publications Committee, Semilore Adelugba, Karen Agee, David Arendale, Sonya Armstrong, Geoffrey Bailey, Barbara Bekis, Hunter Boylan, Amarilis Costillo, Gwen Eldridge, Zohreh Fathi, Sarah Felber, Jennifer Ferguson, John Gardner, Denise Guckert, Russ Hodges (and graduate students from several of his doctoral courses), Page Keller, Jonathan Lollar, Lucy MacDonald, Amanda Metzler, Jane Neuburger, Kimberley Nolting, Paul Nolting, Jan Norton, David Otts, Robin Ozz, Karen Patty-Graham, Diane Ramirez, Norm Stahl, Linda Thompson, Lori Wischnewsky, and others who anonymously offered their comments through a glossary feedback website. A special recognition is given to Dr. Karen Agee who provided the most input and thoughtful revision suggestions for the glossary. I offered her the role as co-editor of the glossary, but she declined. For those that know Karen, you would probably not be surprised. She preferred to continue to serve the field of learning assistance but did not want to be in the limelight. I have been fortunate to have her as a personal colleague and friend for my career. Many thanks from me and those who work as equity warriers in the field of learning assistance who seek to help the next generation of leaders to do well in college and life. Thanks again for listening.