The AT Last Podcast

AT LAST

Sports medicine practitioners recognizing, addressing, and catalyzing change within their spheres of influence. Hosts Adam Cady, Christopher Bates, and Kristen Ross focus specifically on the issue of “race” in America, its disparaging impact on our society, and how that is reflected within the world of athletic training.

Impact of Degree Change on Students of Color w/ Tedd Girouard
Apr 19 2021
Impact of Degree Change on Students of Color w/ Tedd Girouard
We sit down with a highly experienced, empathic, and culturally competent educator to discuss the impact of degree inflation on the recruitment and retention of students of Color. References Potential negative impacts of degree change to underrepresented student of color Financial constraints Bachelors versus masters degree GA positions will change Geographic constraints Cost of education vs post grad salary Greater length of time until in the work force Isolation/alienation Few POC in the program Current programs don’t recruit 80% of program directors do not intentionally recruit POC Soon to be published data from Dr. Warren Most AT programs are at predominantly white schools One HBCU with athletic training major1 Bethune-Cookman Univ Is there a gap in cultural competence in current AT education? Most educators do not endorse having high levels of confidence in cultural comptency3 These educators lack diversity Degree change FAQ’s from NATA2 How will the degree change impact diversity? “It was found that greater diversity exists at the graduate level of athletic training programs than it does at the undergraduate level. In addition, minorities represent a high population of student athletes. Therefore, the degree level change may also open up the opportunity to become an athletic trainer for more minority students, as the athletes can complete their AT coursework once their undergraduate playing days are completed.” Does the change increase student debt? “The extra one to two years of school does mean debt will increase; however, when you compare ATs who have master’s degrees with those who don’t, ATs with master’s have more longevity in the profession and higher rates of full time employment, which often corresponds to increased salaries. Even though the debt is higher, having a master’s could help contribute to increased salary, thus reducing student debt at a quicker rate.” References 1. ( ( Grove DH, Mansell J. Cultural competence: where are we as athletic training educators? Athletic Training Education Journal. 2020;15(1):49-54. Contact/Support/Questions/Comments How to contact the initiative to support, collaborate, ask questions: Email: atlast@atvantagepodcasts.com GoFundMe ( and Blessings Artwork by Jason Eisenberg Instagram: @dots_and_squares LinkedIn: ( music by Willie B the Ichiban Don Instagram: @ichibandon LinkedIn: ( / Engineering / Editing / Content Creation Joseph “J Pash” Patrick Website: ( @passionnetpro Instagram: @passionnetpro Facebook: ( ( Sandoval Instagram: @thesoundarchitects Websites:  (
Vaccination Hesitation: COVID-19 Vaccine Safety & Efficacy w/ Christina Cady
Mar 8 2021
Vaccination Hesitation: COVID-19 Vaccine Safety & Efficacy w/ Christina Cady
On this episode we discuss the safety and efficacy of vaccines with guest, Christina Cady. We also discuss some of the literature related to reduced vaccination rates in communities of color.  Show Notes Influenza vaccination rates compared by Race Influenza vaccination is widely recommended and fully covered preventative service under the ACA Data show flu vaccination rates remain low and there are persistent racial disparities in uptake of flu vaccine 2018-2019 CDC flu vaccine data Adults by race Whites 49% Blacks 39% Latinos 37% AIAN 38% Factors leading to lower rates Less insurance and less likely usual source of care Critical factors Blacks perceive a higher risk of side effects Lower knowledge of flu vaccine Less trust in the vaccine Black patients do not always receive Strong recommendations Specific offers for vaccine Decreased acceptance of new vaccine with highest level of worry amongst Blacks Perception of racial fairness and influence of race in health care settings and experiences with discrimination are associated with attitudes and beliefs about vaccinations which can influence getting vaccinated POC have more missed opportunities for vaccines, but would be more willing to accept if strongly recommended COVID-19 Vaccinations Available evidence:  15,474,800 cases from Jan 21st to Dec 10th Hospitalization rate: 278.7 per 100,000 people Mortality: 291,522 COVID-19 associated deaths 2,740 new deaths per day In LA (recent LA County public health lecture 1/5/21) Death rate is 4 times higher in areas of poverty COVID-19 Vaccination Evidence to Recommendations from the CDC ACIP Population: >16 yo Intervention: Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2) Comparison: No vaccine Outcomes Symptomatic lab confirmed COVID-19 Hospitalization secondary to COVID-19 All cause death SARS CoV-2 Seroconversion to a non-spike protein (date pending early December) Asymptomatic SARS Cov-2 Infection (data pending early December) Serious Adverse Events Reactogenicity Grade >3 Do desirable effects of vaccine outweigh undesirable effects? A resounding Yes, benefits outweigh harms in most settings Pfizer vaccine demonstrated VERY HIGH efficacy (95%) post 2 dose regimen against symptomatic lab confirmed covid infection Level of evidence: High certainty Across all groups (age, gender, race, with comorbidities) Not included: children, pregnant women, immunodeficient individuals Limitations Only 2 month f/u Limited power to detect rare adverse events Vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization 100% L of E: low certainty because rare outcome Deaths uncommon 2 in vaccine 4 placebo L of E: very low certainty because rate outcome Serious adverse events very similar in vaccine vs placebo groups L of E: moderate Severe reactions (>3 grade) 8.8% vaccinated 2.1% placebo L of E: high certainty Uncertainty about vaccine by surveys Scientific articles 272, 14 included News/media, 19 included Intentions Acceptance lowest among Black respondents 25-55% for Black 37-70% for White > with higher SES > with hx of flu vaccination > with healthcare provider recommendation Concerns Vaccine side effects Uncertainty of efficacy Speed of approval process Low risk perception of disease High vaccination rates require addressing the previous mentioned barriers Access Cost Federal law states insurers provide COVID-19 vaccination for free Trump admin has said free for uninsured but there are questions about funding People need to know where to access Distrust Safety concerns What are the risks of side effects? Strategies to increase vaccination rates Healthcare providers can increase vaccination rates by pairing recommendation with offer at same time Provide info in linguistic and culturally appropriate ways Proactively address peoples concerns Use trusted individuals from the community as messengers References Artiga S. Orgera K. Key Facts on...
People Don't Quit Jobs, They Quit People w/ Alisha M. Pennington
Feb 22 2021
People Don't Quit Jobs, They Quit People w/ Alisha M. Pennington
On this episode, we discuss the intersection of Diversity and Inclusion (D&I) and its implications to business with guest Alisha M. Pennington. We get into specifics of D&I within the lens of healthcare, sports medicine, and athletic training. Show Notes The business case for diversity How inclusion matters Significance of the topic to business/healthcare Increased diversity/inclusion may lead to…… Increased profitability Increased employee quality of life Increased retention Improved patient outcomes Express implication of topic to the growth & development of the profession Organizations/Colleges that employ large numbers of ATs can be at the forefront of diversity and inclusion within our space of healthcare How employees experience inclusion Equality-are promotions based on who or what you know? Openness-do you openly embrace diversity/inclusion and do your actions agree Belonging-is a culture fostered to make people feel included Strategies to improve D&I Systemic led Increase diverse representation in leadership and critical roles Strengthen leadership and accountability for delivering D&I goals Strengthen inclusion Equal opportunity through fairness and transparency Example: fair/transparent recruiting/hiring practices Promote openness/reduce bias and discrimination Foster belonging through support for diversity Summary Diversity is important but so is inclusion which are not exclusive of each other. Diversity/inclusion can lead to improved performance Value Improved patient care and outcomes Recruitment and retention of diverse employees Increased profitability References Hunt V, Prince S, Dixon-Fyle S, Dolan K. Diversity wins: How inclusion matters. McKinsey & Company Report. May 2020 Contact/Support/Questions/Comments How to contact the initiative to support, collaborate, ask questions: Email: atlast@atvantagepodcasts.com GoFundMe ( virtual symposium 2021 Registration link: ( Contact info LinkedIn: ( @theATvantage Facebook: ( theatvantage Gratitude and Blessings Artwork by Jason Eisenberg Instagram: @dots_and_squares LinkedIn: ( music by Willie B the Ichiban Don Instagram: @ichibandon LinkedIn: ( / Engineering / Editing / Content Creation Joseph “J Pash” Patrick Website: ( @passionnetpro Instagram: @passionnetpro Facebook: ( ( Sandoval Instagram: @thesoundarchitects Websites:  ( (
Social Determinants of Health w/ Dr. Alejandra Merriman
Feb 8 2021
Social Determinants of Health w/ Dr. Alejandra Merriman
Our guest today is Alejandra Merriman, Sports Medicine Instructor and Clinician at Dorsey High School in South Central Los Angeles. In this episode we discuss the lack of access to Athletic Trainers in Los Angeles (LA) and its implications to the health of athletes in underserved communities of LA. Show Notes Latinx Athletic Trainers Access to ATs in CA CA has the second largest number of athletes of any state, with 40% of those athletes at schools without an AT or with another healthcare provider5 % number of students eligible for free lunch (criteria applied for national school lunch program, submitting household income forms, student homeless/migrant status) Roughly 90 high schools in LAUSD with sports 6 of them have an ATC 42 high schools have 90+ % of students that are eligible for free lunch Basically, the other 40+ schools have 50% of their student body eligible for free lunch Actions items for ATs to walk away with from this discussion Participate in CATA upcoming virtual hit the hill If you have relationships with LAUSD athletic directors, have a conversation: AT Last can guide you with this Contact AT Last for questions collaboration References McLeod TCV, Cardenas JF. Emergency preparedness of secondary school athletic programs in Arizona. Journal of Athletic Training. 2019;54(2):133-141. Johnson ST, Norcross MF, Bovbjerg VE, Hoffman MA, Chang E, Koester MC. Sports-related emergency preparedness in oregon high schools. Sports Health. 2017;9(2):181-184. Post E, Winterstein AP, Hetzel SJ, Lutes B, McGuine TA. School and community socioeconomic status and access to athletic trainer services in wisconsin secondary schools. Journal of Athletic Training. 2019;54(2):177-181. Kroshus E, Rivara FP, Whitlock KB, Herring SA, Chrisman SPD. Disparities in athletic trainer staffing in secondary school sport: implications for concussion identification. Clin J Sport Med. 2017;27(6):542-547. Post EG, Roos KG, Rivas S, Kasamatsu TM, Bennett J. Access to athletic trainer services in california secondary schools. Journal of Athletic Training. 2019;54(12):1229-1236. Adler NE, Newman K. Socioeconomic disparities in health: pathways and policies. Health Affairs. 2002;21(2):60-76. Reback R. Investments in students’ physical and mental health inCalifornia’s public schools. Getting Down to Facts II Web site. Published2018. Accessed September 4, 2019. Simon JE, Wikstrom EA, Grooms DR, Docherty CL, Dompier TP, Kerr ZY. Athletic training service characteristics for patients with ankle sprains sustained during high school athletics. Journal of Athletic Training. 2019;54(6):676-683. Adams WM, Scarneo SE, Casa DJ. State-level implementation of health and safety policies to prevent sudden death and catastrophic injuries within secondary school athletics. Orthop J Sports Med. 2017;5(9):2325967117727262. Contact/Support/Questions/Comments How to contact the initiative to support, collaborate, ask questions: Email: atlast@atvantagepodcasts.com GoFundMe ( virtual symposium 2021 Registration link: ( Contact info LinkedIn: ( @LatinxATs Facebook: ( @LatinxATs Gratitude and Blessings Artwork by Jason Eisenberg Instagram: @dots_and_squares LinkedIn: ( music by Willie B the Ichiban Don Instagram:...
The Network Gap w/ Dr. Charles Ramos
Feb 1 2021
The Network Gap w/ Dr. Charles Ramos
In the episode the AT Last team discusses the Network Gap with close friend and colleague Dr. Charles Ramos. In particular, research pertaining to the network gap and strategies to close the network gap are discussed. Dr. Charles Ramos is the Sports Medicine Program Manager at Diablo Valley College where he is a clinician and educator. Show Notes The network Gap Who you know matters1: >70% of professionals get hired at companies where they have a connection On LinkedIn applicants referred to a job by a current employee are 9 times more likely to get hired The gap = networks are not distributed equally The following can give you 12x advantage in gaining access to opportunity1 Where you grow up Zip code with median income over 100K is nearly 3x more likely to have a stronger network than a member in lower income zip Where you go to school Top colleges2 = 2x more likely for strong network Where you work Working at a top company3 = 2x more likely for strong network Action Items Students See non profits below AT Last is looking for an AT student intern Network dense professionals Plus one Pledge4 = before helping a person who looks like you (example: informational interview), help someone outside of your network. Host a Jeffersonian Style Dinner6 Volunteer to mentor with a nonprofit that is closing the network gap4: Basta, Braven, Beyond12, Mentor, Year Up If you are in a position to hire5 Interview diverse candidates Intentionally recruit from HBCUs Give interview feedback to a candidate who comes from a diverse background (think plus one pledge) Diversify your staff and leverage your diverse staff to provide referrals from their networks References Garlinghouse M. Closing the Network Gap. LinkedIn Official Blog. 2019 ( ( ( J. The Network Gap Worsens Amidst Covid-19, and What You Can Do About It. Forbes. 2020 ( to contact the initiative to support, collaborate, ask questions: Email: atlast@atvantagepodcasts.com GoFundMe ( virtual symposium 2021 Registration link: ( Contact info LinkedIn: ( and Blessings Artwork by Jason Eisenberg Instagram: @dots_and_squares LinkedIn: ( music by Willie B the Ichiban Don Instagram: @ichibandon LinkedIn: ( / Engineering / Editing / Content Creation Joseph “J Pash” Patrick Website: ( @passionnetpro Instagram: @passionnetpro Facebook: ( ( Sandoval Instagram: @thesoundarchitects Websites:  ( (
Cultural Competence Is Not A Destination w/ Dr. Karlita Warren
Jan 25 2021
Cultural Competence Is Not A Destination w/ Dr. Karlita Warren
In this Episode we discuss and define cultural competence and it’s implications to patients and healthcare providers. Dr. Warren’s research interests include cultural competence, diversity and inclusion, and health equity and disparities. Show Notes Cultural Competence Define cultural Competence Why is cultural competence significant to our society and healthcare? Improved outcomes of patients More diverse work settings which has its own value and implications Could lead to increased recruitment of culturally diverse healthcare providers Is there a gap in cultural competence in current AT education? Since 2003 there have been only 6 peer reviewed articles published on cultural competence as it relates to AT's Most educators do not endorse having high levels of confidence in cultural comptency These educators lack diversity From AT and other healthcare research, competence is not enough. Most studies show a perceived level of competence, but behavior contradicts the perceived level of competence Perceived level of competence is often high with levels of implicit bias still existing Growth and development of the profession will be stagnant without knowledge on ways to Increase cultural competence Intergroup dialogue is an evidenced based approach Reduce implicit bias Recruit and retain more diverse populations Black students perceive greater barriers to enrollment in allied health education in comparison to whites Support the value & application with outside examples Studies in other health professions showing perceived level of competence with concurrent high levels of implicit bias Kinesiology study looking at recruitment of persons of color Diverse leadership has benefits demonstrated in other sectors that lead Improved collaboration and reduced contention of subjects Improved performance Companies that are culturally diverse outperform non-diverse companies on profitability Highest levels of executive team diversity Finance/Tech/healthcare Improved idea creation References Nynas SM. The assessment of athletic training students’ knowledge and behavior to provide culturally competent care. Athletic Training Education Journal. 2015;10(1):82-90. Grove DH, Mansell J. Cultural competence: where are we as athletic training educators? Athletic Training Education Journal. 2020;15(1):49-54. Geisler PR. Multiculturalism and athletic training education: implications for educational and professional progress. J Athl Train. 2003;38(2):141-151. Volberding JL. Perceived cultural competence levels in undergraduate athletic training students. Athletic Training Education Journal. 2013;8(3):66-70. Kochanek J. Promoting cultural competence in athletic training education: an intergroup dialogue approach. Athletic Training Education Journal. 2020;15(2):113-119. Volberding J. Relationship between cultural competence and athletic training students’ confidence in providing culturally competent care. Athletic Training & Sports Health Care. Published online January 3, 2014. Barfield JP, Cobler DC, Lam ETC, Zhang J, Chitiyo G. Differences between African-American and Caucasian students on enrollment influences and barriers in kinesiology-based allied health education programs. Advances in Physiology Education. 2012;36(2):164-169. Hunt V, Prince S, Dixon-Fyle S, Dolan K. Diversity wins: How inclusion matters. McKinsey & Company Report. May 2020 Contact/Support/Questions/Comments How to contact the initiative to support, collaborate, ask questions: Email: atlast@atvantagepodcasts.com GoFundMe ( virtual symposium 2021 Registration link: ( Contact info Website:   (